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Modified capillaries of liver that are lined with phagocytes are called .
Factors that aid venous return include
- Activity of skeletal muscles
- Pressure changes in thorax
- Venous valves
A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the
right side of the head, neck, and upper right arm.
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to
changes in arterial pressure.
Know the definition of the followings: Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph, Lymph nodes and Peyer's patches
Thoracic duct: receives lymph from most of the body
Spleen: stores blood platelets; largest lymphatic organ
Lymph: protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels
- Lymph nodes: Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
- Peyer’s Patches: isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the intestinal wall
receives lymph from most of the body
stores blood platelets; largest lymphatic organ
protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels
Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the intestinal wall
The function of type II pneumocytes is to
The patency of the trachea is due to
Intrapulmonary pressure is the
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs.
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by
Dalton's law states
that total pressure is the sum of partial pressures of individual gases.
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by
interfering with cohesiveness of water molecules.
Tidal volume is
air exchanged in normal breathing.
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the
Respiratory control centers are located in the
pons and medulla.
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called
inspiratory reserve volume.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
As the bicarbonate ion
the gross anatomy of both lungs
(cardiac notch is found on the left lung)
role of the pleura
- To reduce friction
- Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers
- Helps limit spread of infection
provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange.
The respiratory membrane is a combination of
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes.
Factors that promote oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin include:
- Partial pressure of oxygen
- Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because
the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes.
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of
the ciliated mucous lining of the nose.
Know the composition of sodium, potassium, phosphate, bicarbonates, and protein for the following: interstitial fluid, blood plasma and intracellular fluid
Interstitial fluid (phosphate and bicarbonate ions)
Blood plasma (Sodium)
Intracellular fluid (Potassium and Protein)
(phosphate and bicarbonate ions)
(Potassium and Protein)
The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of
The main physiological cause of Respiratory acidosis is
increased carbon dioxide.
the three chemical buffer systems
the pathogenic agent for the followings: Chlamydia,
- (organism responsible for up to half of cases of PID)
Genital warts, (hpv)
Syphilis, treponpna pallum
Genital herpes, human herpes virus type 2
Gonorrhea urethritis in males
(organism responsible for up to half of cases of PID)
human herpes virus type 2
urethritis in males
leads to enhanced sperm motility and increasing membrane fragility to enable enzyme release of acrosomes
leads to the formation of first cell of new individual
imbedding of the blastocyst in uterine wall
establishment of the three primary germ layers
development of a morula and a blastocyst
The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the _____ week
The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the
In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the lungs is by way of the
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until they undergo
During the first trimester the _______ produces Estrogen and Progesterone.
corpus luteum (ovary)
The two enzymes that act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate are _____ and ____
proteases and acrosin
the embryonic germ layers
The hormone which maintains the viability of the corpus luteum is
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called
The walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of four basic layers.
- muscularis externa
the factors that help create the stomach mucosal barrier
- Thick bicarbonate
- Tight junction of epithelium
- Replacing damaged cells
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in
the lamina propria
hormone that causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
Pepsinogen is secreted by the
the components of the renal corpuscle
- Bowman’s capsule
The ____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic BP
the chief force pushing water and solutes across the filtration membrane
Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
the components of The filtration membrane
- Glomerular endothelium
- Fused basement membrane
The macula densa cells respond to
changes in solute content of filtrate. (sodium chloride)
The fluid in the Bowman's capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of
Why does Alcohol acts as a diuretic?
the functions of angiotensin II
- Constrict arterioles
- Increase BP
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
*(nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra)
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
Normally all glucose is reabsorbed
higher than normal potassium level
an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of magnesium in the blood
an electrolyte disturbance that is defined by an elevated sodium level in the blood.
lower than normal amount of calcium in the blood
a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal.
Aldosterone regulates ___ and _____ in an antagonistic fashion
sodium and potassium
The two organs that function as the most important physiological buffer systems are
lungs and kidneys
The three methods for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood are
- Chemical buffer systems
- Respiratory changes
- Urinary system
The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis
Normal development of the immune response is due to hormones produced by
Describe APGAR score
The Apgar score, the very first test given to your newborn, occurs in the delivery or birthing room right after your baby's birth.
The test was designed to quickly evaluate a newborn's physical condition and to determine any immediate need for extra medical or emergency care.
- Five factors are used to evaluate the baby's condition and each factor is scored on a scale of 0 to 2, with 2 being the best score:
- appearance (skin coloration)
- pulse (heart rate)
- grimace response (medically known as "reflex irritability")
- activity and muscle tone
- respiration (breathing rate and effort)