Bio Final Review #2

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Bio Final Review #2
2014-04-26 14:08:06
Second set of Questions, starting at #85
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  1. Modified capillaries of liver that are lined with phagocytes are called .
  2. Factors that aid venous return include
    • Activity of skeletal muscles
    • Pressure changes in thorax
    • Venous valves
  3. A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the
    right side of the head, neck, and upper right arm.
  4. The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to
    changes in arterial pressure.
  5. Know the definition of the followings: Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph, Lymph nodes and Peyer's patches
    Thoracic duct: receives lymph from most of the body

    Spleen: stores blood platelets; largest lymphatic organ

    Lymph: protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels

    • Lymph nodes: Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
    • Peyer’s Patches: isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the intestinal wall
  6. Thoracic duct:
    receives lymph from most of the body
  7. Spleen:
    stores blood platelets; largest lymphatic organ
  8. Lymph:
    protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels
  9. Lymph nodes:
    Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
  10. Peyer’s Patches:
    isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the intestinal wall
  11. The function of type II pneumocytes is to
    secrete surfactant.
  12. The patency of the trachea is due to
    cartilage rings.
  13. Intrapulmonary pressure is the
    pressure within the alveoli of the lungs.
  14. The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by
    Boyle’s law.
  15. Dalton's law states
    that total pressure is the sum of partial pressures of individual gases.
  16. Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by
    interfering with cohesiveness of water molecules.
  17. Tidal volume is
    air exchanged in normal breathing.
  18. vital capacity.
    The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the
  19. Respiratory control centers are located in the
    pons and medulla.
  20. The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called
    inspiratory reserve volume.
  21. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
  22. How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
    As the bicarbonate ion
  23. the gross anatomy of both lungs
    (cardiac notch is found on the left lung)
  24. role of the pleura
    • To reduce friction
    • Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers
    • Helps limit spread of infection
  25. Alveoli
    provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange.
  26. The respiratory membrane is a combination of
    alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes.
  27. Factors that promote oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin include:
    • Partial pressure of oxygen
    • Temperature
    • Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
  28. The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because
    the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes.
  29. Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of
    the ciliated mucous lining of the nose.
  30. Know the composition of sodium, potassium, phosphate, bicarbonates, and protein for the following: interstitial fluid,  blood plasma and intracellular fluid
    Interstitial fluid (phosphate and bicarbonate ions)

    Blood plasma (Sodium)

    Intracellular fluid (Potassium and Protein)
  31. Interstitial fluid
    (phosphate and bicarbonate ions)
  32. Blood plasma
  33. Intracellular fluid
    (Potassium and Protein)
  34. The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of
    sodium ions
  35. The main physiological cause of Respiratory acidosis is
    increased carbon dioxide.
  36. the three chemical buffer systems
    • Bicarbonate
    • Phosphate
    • Protein
  37. the pathogenic agent for the followings: Chlamydia,
    Genital warts,
    Genital herpes,
    • Chlamydia,
    • (organism responsible for up to half of cases of PID)

    Genital warts, (hpv)

    Syphilis, treponpna pallum

    Genital herpes, human herpes virus type 2

    Gonorrhea urethritis in males
  38. Chlamydia
    (organism responsible for up to half of cases of PID)
  39. Genital warts
  40. Syphilis,
    treponpna pallum
  41. Genital herpes,
    human herpes virus type 2
  42. Gonorrhea
    urethritis in males
  43. Capacitation:
    leads to enhanced sperm motility and increasing membrane fragility to enable enzyme release of acrosomes
  44. Fertilization:
    leads to the formation of first cell of new individual
  45. Implantation:
    imbedding of the blastocyst in uterine wall
  46. Gastrulation:
    establishment of the three primary germ layers
  47. Cleavage:
    development of a morula and a blastocyst
  48. The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the _____ week
  49. The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the
  50. In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the lungs is by way of the
    foramen ovale
  51. It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until they undergo
  52. During the first trimester the _______ produces Estrogen and Progesterone.
    corpus luteum (ovary)
  53. The two enzymes that act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate are _____ and ____
    proteases and acrosin
  54. the embryonic germ layers
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
  55. The hormone which maintains the viability of the corpus luteum is
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
  56. mesentery
    The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called
  57. The walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of four basic layers.
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa
    • serosa
  58. the factors that help create the stomach mucosal barrier
    • Thick bicarbonate
    • Tight junction of epithelium
    • Replacing damaged cells
  59. The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in
    the lamina propria
  60. hormone that causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile
  61. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
    Parietal cells
  62. Pepsinogen is secreted by the
    chief cells
  63. the components of the renal corpuscle
    • Glomerulus
    • Bowman’s capsule
  64. The ____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney
  65. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
    regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic BP
  66. the chief force pushing water and solutes across the filtration membrane
    Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
  67. the components of The filtration membrane
    • Glomerular endothelium
    • Podocytes
    • Fused basement membrane
  68. The macula densa cells respond to
    changes in solute content of filtrate. (sodium chloride)
  69. The fluid in the Bowman's capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of
    plasma protein
  70. Why does Alcohol acts as a diuretic?
    Inhibits ADH
  71. the functions of angiotensin II
    • Constrict arterioles
    • Increase BP
  72. A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is
    Diabetes Insipidus
  73. Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

    major calyx
    minor calyx
    collecting duct
    *(nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra)
  74. The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the
    glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  75. If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
    Normally all glucose is reabsorbed
  76. Hyperkalemia:
    higher than normal potassium level
  77. Hypermagnesemia:
    an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of magnesium in the blood
  78. Hypernatremia:
    an electrolyte disturbance that is defined by an elevated sodium level in the blood.
  79. Hypocalcemia:
    lower than normal amount of calcium in the blood
  80. Hyponatremia:
    a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal.
  81. Aldosterone regulates ___ and _____ in an antagonistic fashion
    sodium and potassium
  82. The two organs that function as the most important physiological buffer systems are
    lungs and kidneys
  83. The three methods for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood are
    • Chemical buffer systems
    • Respiratory changes
    • Urinary system
  84. The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
  85. hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis
    • ACTH
    • TSH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • GH
    • Prolactin
  86. Normal development of the immune response is due to hormones produced by
    Thymus gland
  87. Describe APGAR score
    The Apgar score, the very first test given to your newborn, occurs in the delivery or birthing room right after your baby's birth.

    The test was designed to quickly evaluate a newborn's physical condition and to determine any immediate need for extra medical or emergency care.

    • Five factors are used to evaluate the baby's condition and each factor is scored on a scale of 0 to 2, with 2 being the best score:
    • appearance (skin coloration)
    • pulse (heart rate)
    • grimace response (medically known as "reflex irritability")
    • activity and muscle tone
    • respiration (breathing rate and effort)