Classification and Development of Schizophrenia

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  1. What are the features of the Paranoid subtype?
    • Language and behaviour appears to be normal
    • Delusions are experienced as well as hallucinations 
    • Highly suspicious of others and exhibit aggressive and argumentative behaviour
  2. What are the features of the catatonic subtype?
    • Totally immobile for long periods of time in catatonic stupors 
    • Bouts of wild and excited movement, becoming unpredictable and possibly dangerous 
    • Exhibit Echolia (repetition of a word of phrase)
    • Exhibit Echopraxia (repeating gestures made by others)
  3. What are the features of the disorganised subtype?
    • Disorganised speech and behaviour 
    • Vivid hallucinations 
    • Extreme social withdrawal
  4. What are the features of the undifferentiated subtype?
    Shows symptoms that do not fit into other subtypes
  5. What are the features of the residual subtype?
    • Suffered from extreme and major symptoms but now display few and mild symptoms 
    • Often socially withdrawn 
    • Bizarre thoughts are often experienced and the patient exhibits flat emotional affect
  6. What did McGlashan and Fenton find in 1991?
    • Catatonic type is fairly rare and could be caused by the drugs designed to treat schizophrenia 
    • It is not a true category of schizophrenia and should be dropped as a category
  7. How can the diagnosis process be said to be inaccurate?
    • The criteria (DSM-IV) doesn't specify a precise set of symptoms, but states that some from each category must be present 
    • This lack of precision can lead to misdiagnosis
  8. What criticisms are made about the undifferentiated subtype?
    • It is too vague and ill defined
    • Many clinicians argue that it is overused and confused with other psychotic disorders
  9. When does schizophrenia generally begin to develop?
    • After age 15
    • Over time symptoms become more numerous and severe
  10. Why is schizophrenia often difficult to detect in its early stages?
    Only a few symptoms may be present and in a mild form
  11. What is the first phase of schizophrenia?
    • The prodomal phase 
    • The patient can go to work and engage in leisure activities
    • Positive symptoms are mild
  12. What is the second phase of schizophrenia?
    • The active phase 
    • Positive symptoms are strong and there is a range of them 
    • This phase can last for months or years if left untreated
  13. What is the third phase of schizophrenia?
    • The residual phase 
    • The highly obvious and active symptoms have subsided with an apparent return to the prodomal phase 
    • Negative symptoms persist with the patient unable to function adequately, either socially or at work
  14. How can the transitional stages of schizophrenia be criticised?
    • The transition from one stage to another is often difficult to determine 
    • Schizophrenia is only clearly diagnosed in the active stage with many symptoms present
  15. How can the transition from the active phase be criticised?
    • Each phase can last for months or years 
    • Most sufferers show a degree of impairment for many years after the active phase 
    • This suggests that people cannot be said to simply move onto the next stage
  16. What did Lieberman find in 1995?
    • Some stay in the active phase for many years 
    • In such cases, positive symptoms in early years are replaced by negative ones in later years
  17. What is the function of the prodomal stage?
    It does not allow for a diagnosis but gives an indication of the full blown positive symptoms that might follow
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Classification and Development of Schizophrenia
2014-04-26 20:18:31
Psychology Schizophrenia Diagnosis

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