Classification and Development of Schizophrenia
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What are the features of the Paranoid subtype?
- Language and behaviour appears to be normal
- Delusions are experienced as well as hallucinations
- Highly suspicious of others and exhibit aggressive and argumentative behaviour
What are the features of the catatonic subtype?
- Totally immobile for long periods of time in catatonic stupors
- Bouts of wild and excited movement, becoming unpredictable and possibly dangerous
- Exhibit Echolia (repetition of a word of phrase)
- Exhibit Echopraxia (repeating gestures made by others)
What are the features of the disorganised subtype?
- Disorganised speech and behaviour
- Vivid hallucinations
- Extreme social withdrawal
What are the features of the undifferentiated subtype?
Shows symptoms that do not fit into other subtypes
What are the features of the residual subtype?
- Suffered from extreme and major symptoms but now display few and mild symptoms
- Often socially withdrawn
- Bizarre thoughts are often experienced and the patient exhibits flat emotional affect
What did McGlashan and Fenton find in 1991?
- Catatonic type is fairly rare and could be caused by the drugs designed to treat schizophrenia
- It is not a true category of schizophrenia and should be dropped as a category
How can the diagnosis process be said to be inaccurate?
- The criteria (DSM-IV) doesn't specify a precise set of symptoms, but states that some from each category must be present
- This lack of precision can lead to misdiagnosis
What criticisms are made about the undifferentiated subtype?
- It is too vague and ill defined
- Many clinicians argue that it is overused and confused with other psychotic disorders
When does schizophrenia generally begin to develop?
- After age 15
- Over time symptoms become more numerous and severe
Why is schizophrenia often difficult to detect in its early stages?
Only a few symptoms may be present and in a mild form
What is the first phase of schizophrenia?
- The prodomal phase
- The patient can go to work and engage in leisure activities
- Positive symptoms are mild
What is the second phase of schizophrenia?
- The active phase
- Positive symptoms are strong and there is a range of them
- This phase can last for months or years if left untreated
What is the third phase of schizophrenia?
- The residual phase
- The highly obvious and active symptoms have subsided with an apparent return to the prodomal phase
- Negative symptoms persist with the patient unable to function adequately, either socially or at work
How can the transitional stages of schizophrenia be criticised?
- The transition from one stage to another is often difficult to determine
- Schizophrenia is only clearly diagnosed in the active stage with many symptoms present
How can the transition from the active phase be criticised?
- Each phase can last for months or years
- Most sufferers show a degree of impairment for many years after the active phase
- This suggests that people cannot be said to simply move onto the next stage
What did Lieberman find in 1995?
- Some stay in the active phase for many years
- In such cases, positive symptoms in early years are replaced by negative ones in later years
What is the function of the prodomal stage?
It does not allow for a diagnosis but gives an indication of the full blown positive symptoms that might follow
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