Chapter 30 Environmental Hazards

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hiker0001
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272048
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Chapter 30 Environmental Hazards
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2014-04-26 23:55:06
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Chapter 30 Environmental Hazards
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Chapter 30 Environmental Hazards
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  1. When exposed parts of the body become very cold but not frozen, the condition is called (three things):
    • frostnip
    • chilblains
    • immersion foot (trench foot)
  2. For a patient with ____, this may require a prolonged pulse check.
    hypothermia
  3. Rough handling of a hypothermic patient may cause a cold, slow, weak heart to ____ and the patient to lose any pulse.
    fibrillate
  4. A special low-temperature thermometer is required to take a hypothermic patient’s temperature, generally done through the ____.
    rectum
  5. Pulse oximetry in a ____ patient will often be inaccurate due to the lack of perfusion in the extremities.
    hypothermic
  6. Rewarming of a hypothermic patient can lead to:
    cardiac arrhythmias.
  7. If prompt hospital care is not available and medical control instructs you to begin rewarming in the field, use a:
    warm-water bath.
  8. Immerse the frostbitten part in water with a temperature of between:
    100°F and 105°F
  9. Hypothermia temperature:
    95 degrees
  10. Hyperthermia temperature:
    101 degrees
  11. Also called heat prostration or heat collapse and is the most common serious illness caused by heat.
    Heat exhaustion
  12. Least common but most serious illness caused by heat exposure.  Untreated it always results in death.
    Heatstroke
  13. Patients who are hyperthermic will have heart rate and respirations that are:
    tachycardic and tachypneic.
  14. Patients with heat cramps or exhaustion usually respond well to ____ cooling and fluids by mouth.
    passive
  15. Patients with symptoms of heatstroke should be transported immediately and ____ cooled.
    actively
  16. Emergency treatment of heat stroke has one objective:
    Get the body temperature down by any means available.
  17. ____ are responsible for more envenomations than any other marine animals.
    Coelenterates
  18. Toxins from the spines of urchins, stingrays, and certain spiny fish such as the lionfish, scorpion fish, or stonefish are heat sensitive.  The best treatment is to immobilize the affected area and soak it in hot water for __ minutes.
    30
  19. A family of insects that includes bees, wasps, ants, and yellow jackets.
    hymenoptera
  20. The ability of the skin to resist deformation; tested by gently pinching the skin of the forehead or back of the hand.
    turgor
  21. You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximately 30′. On assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:
    A. suction his mouth and nose, keep him supine and elevate his legs to prevent air bubbles from entering his brain, administer high-flow oxygen, and transport to a hyperbaric chamber.
    B. place him in a semi-sitting position, suction his mouth and nose, apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, and transport to the closest emergency department.
    C. position him supine with his head elevated 30°, suction his mouth and nose, hyperventilate him with a bag-mask device, and contact medical control for further guidance.
    D. suction his mouth and nose, apply high-flow oxygen, position him on his left side with his head down, and contact medical control regarding transport to a recompression facility.
    • D. suction his mouth and nose, apply high-flow oxygen, position him on
    • his left side with his head down, and contact medical control regarding
    • transport to a recompression facility.

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