Card Set Information
test review chemistry
What does the atomic number represent?
the number of protons
____ are found inside the nucleus and has a positive charge.
_____ are found outside of the nucleus and has a negative charge.
What reacts because of the electrons?
What does the atomic mass represent?
the amount of protons plus the amount of neutrons
What is the electron that reacts?
the valence electron
Each ring outside of the nucleus holds how many electrons?
8 except for the first one that only contains 2
_____ are held together by positive and negative charges.
____ share electrons
When an atom shares bonds equally it is _____.
What are the four most common elements in order?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
Why is a water molecule polar?
because of the electronegativity difference, which creates a slightly more negatively charged oxygen and slightly more positively charged hydrogens.
What gives water most of its unique properties?
Are enzymes affected by their environment?
Do all enzymes function in the same optimal conditions?
What helps enzymes work better and faster?
If an enzyme loses its shape integrity can carry out its function?
Enzymes are ___ and _____.
proteins and catalysts
How do enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction?
by applying pressure to the reactants, bringing the reactants closer together and by pulling on the reactants to apply stress to the bonds
What makes the backbone of DNA and RNA?
sugar and phosphate
The four nucleotide bases of DNA
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
The four nucleotide bases of RNA
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
What carries genetic information?
DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA are both ______ but can also be called _____.
nucleic acids, polynucleotides
What makes up DNA and RNA?
sugar, phosphate, and base
Steroid hormones are
Your body stores the fats from your meal in the form of:
Sucrose is a ______ made from _____ and _______.
disaccharide; fructose; fructose
Used for energy storage in animals
Used for energy storage in plants
What is made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?
What is their function?
polysaccharides; store energy
Monosaccarides have a _:_:_ ratio of C:H:O.
Monosaccarides have a 1:2:1 ratio of _:_:_.
the internal bonds that keep the protein stable, the amino acid sequence, and the alpha helices and beta sheets all contribute to a protein's function by helping proteins maintain there ____.
What are some functions of proteins?
They catalyze chemical reactions. They transport materials. They repair tissues.
The primary protein structure is the _____
Tertiary protein structure is the _______ folding of the _______.
_____ and ____ are secondary protein structures.
beta sheets and alpha helices
quaternary protein structure is the ________.
completed protein complex
Amino acids have a ____ group, _____ group, and an ____ group.
amino, carboxyl, R-group
Is the carboxyl group acidic?
What is the "R-group" short for?
What is the loss of a water molecule?
amino acids bond through ______. What type of bond does it form?
dehydration synthesis; peptide bond
In order to break a peptide bond you have to add a water molecule. What is the process called?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen make up approximately ___ of all living things.
Which two properties of water do plants depend on for water transport up the stems?
adhesion and cohesion
The weakest of all chemical reactions and are not considered bonds
Van der Waals interactions
Nitrogen (N2) has a ___ covalent bond.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has a ____ covalent bond.
Water (H2O) has a ____ covalent bond.
Salt (NaCl) is an ____compound
Ionic bonds are formed between two atoms with very different ______.
Ionic bonds are stronger than ______ bonds, but weaker than _____ bonds.
What is an acid?
any solute that donates H+ to the solution or that accepts OH- from the solution
What makes up a solution?
a solvent and a solute
What are two very important solutes?
acids and bases
A(n) ____ increases the concentration of H
ions in a solution.
A(n) ____ reduces the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
A ph between 0-6 is ____.
A ph of 7 is ______.
A ph of 8-10+ is ______.
What are some unique properties of water?
its high surface tension
its ability to absorb large amounts of heat
its ability to dissolve many polar compounds
Water can only dissolve ___ substances.