Card Set Information
powerpoint final ntd 303
the water soluble vitamins
do not yield any energy, however many of them assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbs, protein and fat
vitamins differ from macronutrients how?
structure of vitamins?
function of vitamins?
no energy yielded
food contents of vitamins?
organic, contain carbon
some vitamins from foods are in their ____ form?
vitamin in inactive form known as ?
precursor or provitamin
once inside the body, the precursor gets converted to ?
the active form of that vitamin
factors influencing bioavailability?
efficiency of digestion
method of food preparation
source of nutrient
other foods consumed at same time
quantity provided by food and amount absorbed and used by body
because they are ____, vitamins can be destroyed during storage and in cooking
converted to active form in body
precursors aka provitamins
water soluble vitamins?
fat soluble vitamins?
type of vitamins that is more likely to cause toxicity because they can be stored in your liver and adipose tissue
energy metabolism is affected by what vitamins/.
affects absorption, transport and excretion
move directly into blood and most travel freely
water soluble vitamins are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
enter lymph and then blood, require transport proteins
fat soluble vitamins
assist enzymes with release of energy
part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate
vitamin B1 (thiamin)
B1 is responsible for?
coversion to pyruvate to acetyl CoA
B1 effects ?
nerve activity and muscle activity
signs of a thiamin deficiency?
malnourished and alcoholics
thiamin deficiency disease?
two types of beriberi? what are they
dry - nervous system
wet - cardiovascular system
toxicity of thiamin?
food sources of thiamin?
whole grain, fortified, enriched grains, pork
thiamin is /
easily destroyed by heat
dialated blood vessels that leads to edema
muscle weakness in arms and legs
edema is aka
serves as a coenzyme in energy metabolism
2 forms of B2 enzymes?
riboflavin recommendations women? men?
inflammation of membranes
food sources riboflavin?
milk and milk products
what is riboflavin destroyed by?
UV light and irradiation, not designed for cooking
riboflavin is aka
2 chemical structures of niacin?
what is converted to what with niacin?
nicotinic acid to nicotinamide
major form of niacin in blood?
two coenzymes of niacin?
NADP (phosphate form)
both coenzymes in niacin are involved in
energy transfer reactions, especially in metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol
characterized by dilated capillaries, which cause a tingling sensation that can be painful
4 D's of pellagra?
toxicity of niacin?
supplements or drugs niacin flush
food sources of niacin?
coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide
this B vitamin deliver carbon to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate
critical in TCA cycle
participates in glucogenesis and fatty acid synthesis
recommendations for biotin?
skin rash, hair loss, neuro impairment
food sources of biotin?
part of chemical structure of coenzyme A
pantothenic acid toxicity?
food sources of pantothenic acid
how is pantothenic acid destroyed?
3 forms of B6?
all 3 forms of B6 can be converted to?
stored exclusively in muscle tissue
abnormal brain waves/convulsions
no more than 100mg/day
food sources of B6?
tuberculosis medication that is an antagonist to B6
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