Final Cards PSY 3400

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brylie
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Final Cards PSY 3400
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2014-04-27 15:49:05
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abnormal psych final
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  1. behavior that is inconsistent with developmental, cultural, and social norms that also creates emotion distress or interferes with daily functioning.
    Abnormal Psychology
  2. the low to moderate experience with a substance that does not produce problems with social, educational, or occupational functioning.
    Substance Use
  3. Physiological, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms, the person uses despite significant issues from use.
    Substance Use Disorder
  4. Reversible, you come down from the intoxication, substance specific, maladaptive behavior that causes psychological train, emerges shortly during or after substance use.
    Substance intoxication
  5. requiring an increasing dose of a substance to achieve the desired effect or a markedly reduced effect when taking the usual dose.
    Tolerance
  6. syndrome that occurs when the concentration of a substance declines in an individual who has maintain prolonged and heavy use of a substance.
    Withdrawal
  7. List Behavioral addictions
    Sex, gambling, computer games, food, exercise, shopping, work.
  8. characterized by unusual thinking, distorted perceptions, and odd behaviors. Out of touch with reality.
    Psychotic disorders
  9. loss of contact with reality, usually takes the form of a delusion or a hallucination (what happens during a psychotic disorder but doesnt mean its a psychotic disorder)
    Psychosis
  10. a false belief (believe aliens got them)
    Delusions
  11. a false sensory perception (see/taste/hear/smell/touch)
    Hallucination
  12. severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception and behavior.
    Schizophrenia
  13. a condition in which a person is awake but nonresponsive to external stimulation.
    Catatonia
  14. Psychotic Disorder - lasts no more than 1 day.
    Brief Psychotic Disorder
  15. schizophrenia and an affective disorder, like major depression, manic, or mixed episode disorder.
    Schizoaffective disorder
  16. identical symptoms of schizophrenia besides duration of the illness is shorter (1 month 6 months) daily activities might still be possibly functioned
    Schizophreniform
  17. consists of the presence of a non-bizarre delusion (an event that might actually happen)
    Delusion Disorder
  18. an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has the onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress and impairment.
    Personality disorder
  19. pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others that their motives are interpreted as malevolent.
    Paranoid personality disorder
  20. dont care but still have relationships - pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships, and a limited expression of emotion in interpersonal contexts.
    Schizoid personality disorder
  21. dont want relationships - a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort, reduced capacity for close relationships, cognitive and perceptual distortions, and behavior eccentricities.
    Schizotypal personality disorder
  22. a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. (Psychopath, sociopath, and dissocial personality disorder known as this.)
    Antisocial personality disorder
  23. is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy. Major sense of self-importance.
    Narcissistic personality disorder
  24. a pervasive pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and impulsivity. Intense bouts of anger, depression, and anxiety may last for hours or a day.
    Borderline personality disorder
  25. pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. (Fear drives them, very, very shy)
    Avoidant personality disorder
  26. pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, which leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation. (Jump from relationships cannot be alone)
    Dependent personality disorder
  27. a pervasive preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control to the point of distress. (OCD symptoms change over time you have obsessions and compulsions and seek help, OCPD usually dont seek help, overly rigid, whole goal is to increase productivity, ruled by perfectionism instead of obsessions)
    Obsessive Compulsive personality disorder
  28. disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning.

    Deficits in conceptual (language, reading, writing, math, reasoning,
    knowledge, and memory) social (empathy, social judgment, interpersonal,
    communication, and friendship skill) and practical (personal care, job
    responsibilities, money management, recreation, and organization skills)
    Intellectual Disability: (mental retardation)
  29. a repeated voiding of urine into ones clothes or bedding. Daytime or nighttime, Primary never achieves continence or Secondary gained control but lost it. Most common type is bed-wetting
    Enuresis:
  30. The repeated releasing of feces other than in the toilet, over the age of 4. Can also be primary or secondary. High depression, anxiety, or shame usually
    Encopresis:
  31. a sub-discipline of psychology that addresses issues of aging including normal development, individual differences, and psychological problems unique to older persons (usually ages 65 and older)
    Gero-psychology:
  32. tendency to attribute a multitude of problems to advancing age.
    Ageism:
  33. Disturbance in attention and awareness. Usually occurs in some context of a medical issue. Very sudden onset usually, symptoms can persist for up to six months!
    Delirium:
  34. cognitive decline from a previous level of performance in cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, learning and memory, language, perceptual-motor, or social cognition). Not accompanied by changes in consciousness or alertness.
    Neurocognitive Disorder:
  35. up to 75% of all neurocognitive disorder patients, forgetting recent events or names, repeating statements or questions, getting lost while driving in familiar places, and experiencing difficulty with calculations.
    Mild/moderate neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease:
  36. results from cardiovascular disease, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, or untreated high blood pressure. Cannot be cured or reversed but we can treat symptoms (delay the progression of the disease and prolong independence as long as you can).
    Major/minor vascular neurocognitive disorder:
  37. Using the principle of psychology to understand how attitudes and behaviors influence health and wellness.
    Health Psychology:
  38. any negative emotional experience that is accompanied by biochemical, physiological, cognitive, behavioral responses that attempt to change the stressor.
    Stress:
  39. Accepted values that provide guidance in making sound, moral judgments.
    Ethics:
  40. Difference between licit and illicit substances
    (legal alcohol, tobacco, caffeine/illegal)
  41. Licit drugs:
    legal drugs alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine.
  42. stimulant to the CNS (central nervous system), boosts energy, mood awareness, concentration, and wakefulness. Less desirable side effects include: fatigue, depressed mood, inactivity, trouble concentrating, irritability, and feeling foggy.
    Caffeine:
  43. enters through lungs, mouth, skin (patch), both a stimulant and a sedative. You feel like youre calming down, releases dopamine, but increases blood pressure/heart rate.
    Nicotine:
  44. legal (21+) quickly absorbed into the blood stream (stomach or intestines) depressant, affects GABA (bodys natural valium), inhibits brain activity. Socially acceptable, DT (tremors)
    Alcohol:
  45. Marijuana (what does it do to your brain, be specific, symptoms (use/abuse), and withdrawal)
    • THC immediately enters the brain and lasts for 1-3 hours. You generally experience a pleasant state of relaxation, intensified color and sound, and slowed perception of time.
    • Effects include dry mouth, munchies, thirst, trembling, fatigue, depression, and occasional anxiety or panic. High doses are associated with visual and auditory activity and fascination, increased HR and BP, bloodshot eyes, and occasionally anxiety, panic, and paranoia.
    • It stimulates the release of dopamine, leading to the feelings of euphoria.
    • Withdrawal includes restlessness, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, weight loss, shaky hands, irritability, and anxiety.
  46. Amphetamines (Ecstasy, crystal meth) and Cocaine. Uppers, bennies, and speed produced in a lab.
    CNS stimulants:
  47. Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines
    Sedatives:
  48. downers slurred speech, decreased respiration, fatigue, disorientation, lack of coordination, and dilated pupils.
    Barbiturates
  49. anxiety prescription. Valium, Xanax. Rohipnol (roofies)
    Benzodiazepines
  50. methadone, codeine, morphine, heroin. Produce pain relief, euphoria, sedation, reduced anxiety, and tranquility.
    Opioids:
  51. produce altered states of perception and sensation, intense emotions, detachment from oneself. Mushrooms, peyote and LSD (synthetic)
    Hallucinogens:
  52. most commonly used by teenagers, cleaning fluid, paint, glue, and gas. Rapid onset of sedation, euphoria, and disinhibiting.
    Inhalants:
  53. 5 steps to relapse prevention
    • 1: Identify Trigger for the situation,
    • 2: thoughts during the situation,
    • 3: feelings experience in response to the trigger and though,
    • 4: drug use behavior, and
    • 5: positive and negative consequence of drug use.
  54. Difference between a lapse and a relapse
    Lapse is a single instance of substance use and a relapse is a complete return to pretreatment behaviors.
  55. Steps to change model
    • * Precontemplation stage: limited awareness of the problem, few emotional reactions to substance abuse, and resistance to change.
    • * Contemplation stage: more aware of the problem and weigh the positive and negative aspects of their substance abuse.
    • * Preparation stage: marked by a decision to take corrective action within the next month
    • * Action stage: actual attempts to change environment, behavior, or experiences.
    • * Maintenance stage: acquiring and engaging in behaviors that are designed to prevent relapse.
  56. Unusual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, such as delusions, hallucinations, etc.
    Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
  57. Different types of delusions
    • * Influence
    • * Self-Significance
    • * Persecution or Paranoid
    • * Somatic
  58. Things that exist in people without a psychiatric disorder but are absent in people with schizophrenia. Diminished emotional expression, anhedonia, avolition, algoia, and psychomotor retardation
    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
  59. Influence Delusion
    behavior or thoughts are controlled by others
  60. Self-Significance delusion
    Thoughts of grandeur, religion (believing youre a god), guilt or sin
  61. Persecution or Paranoid delusion:
    thoughts that others are out to harm the person.
  62. Somatic delusion:
    belief that ones body is rotting away.
  63. Different types of hallucinations
    • Auditory (noises or voices),
    • visual (seeing people),
    • olfactory (Smells),
    • Gustatory (tastes),
    • Somatic (feelings of pain or deterioration of parts of ones body)
  64. apathy, inability to initiate or follow through on plans.
    Avolition:
  65. refers to lack of capacity for pleasure
    Anadonia:
  66. decreased quality and/or quantity of speech
    Alogia:
  67. Difference between personality trait/personality disorders
    We all have traits, but dont all have disorders.
  68. 3 Ps of personality disorder
    Persistent, pervasive, pathological
  69. 3 clusters of personality disorders and which go where
    • A paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal (odd/excentric)
    • B antisocial, borderline, histrionic (emotional/erratic)
    • C Avoidant, dependent, and OCDPD (anxious and fearful)
  70. Developmental factors that lead to personality disorders
    usually formed before the age of 5, associated with emotional distress and psychological impairment as children, parenting styles make a difference, early childhood trauma
  71. Treatment of personality disorders
    Patient and therapists must make subtle distinctions between healthy and maladaptive behavior patterns. DBT/CBT.
  72. Big Five Personality Traits
    • Extraversion (sociable/lively),
    • Neuroticism (Relaxed),
    • Conscientious (responsible/careful),
    • Agreeableness (gets along with others),
    • Openness (welcomes new ideas/experiences)
  73. Stages of childhood development (3 stages)
    Physical, Behavioral, Cognitive
  74. Treatment of intellectual developmental disorder
    Psychological treatment focuses on teaching skills that facilitate community adjustment: self-care, independent living, and job maintenance. Shaping and Chaining allow children to learn simple tasks
  75. Problems associated with specific learning disorder
    Low self-esteem, dropping out, demoralization, etc.
  76. Treatment of ASD
    Behavioral interventions target: aberrant behaviors, social skills, language, daily living skills, and academics. ABA
  77. Difference between Conduct Disorder and ODD
    Both hate authority, but Conduct Disorder is more severe and does illegal things, as well as have to be over 18 years old.
  78. Primary and secondary elimination disorders
    • Primary: Never had control
    • Secondary: Had control but no longer do
  79. Problems of aging
    Suffer in: Social relationships, active lifestyle, diet, perceived good health, lack of cognitive deficits, continued independence
  80. What you need to do to age successfully
    Perceived good health and an active lifestyle, continued independence in functioning, lack of disability, absence of cognitive impairment, and positive social relationships.
  81. Selective optimism and compensation
    People age more successfully when they modify their goals and choices to make best use of their personality characteristics. These adjustments often require compensating for age-related limitations that reduce ones ability to reach previously valued goals.
  82. have a psychological disorder and many more have distress in their life but dont meet the DSM criteria.
    20%
  83. Why older adults dont seek treatment
    They dont seek treatment for cognitive deficits, shame (dont want to be called crazy), lack of support/resources, $/insurance, knowledge, logistics, old school mentality
  84. Depression in older adults (problem with diagnosing)
    lots of death around them, depression looks different for different ages usually go to medical conditions first!
  85. Problem with diagnosing anxiety in older adults/ What does it look like in older adults
    diagnostic criteria look the same for all ages the nature of worry is different for older adults (death, shame, embarrassment, life cycle changes, worrying the doctor, worrying about bothering other people, worrying about incontinence, other bodily changes). Sometimes they say my heart is racing so instead of seeing it as psychological, doctor thinks physical
  86. Treatment for depression in older adults:
    Depression: medications (SSRI) (more sensitive to side effects), CBT, reminiscence therapy (have them think back to their past and how they solved problems then)
  87. Treatment for anxiety in older adults:
    Anxiety: SSRI, not benzos (like normal anxiety meds), CBT (not as effective), best treatment is CBT + medication
  88. Differences of worries in older adults
    death, shame, embarrassment, life cycle changes, worrying the doctor, worrying about bothering other people, worrying about incontinence, other bodily changes
  89. Substance disorders/use in older adults
    theyre very heavily medicated, alcohol, prescription meds, tobacco,
  90. Central features of a neurocognitive disorder
    cognitive decline from a previous level of performance in cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, learning and memory, language, perceptual-motor, or social cognition). Not accompanied by changes in consciousness or alertness.
  91. Treatment of neurocognitive disorders
    Treatment delays disease progression, prolongs independent functioning, improves quality of life, manages associated emotional and behavioral symptoms, and provides support and assistance to caregivers. Medications slow cognitive decline and improve global functioning.
  92. Treatment of delirium
    Treatment is manipulating the environment to reduce sensory stimulation and provide reality training and it can be fixed. A low dose anti-psychotic can be used if needed.
  93. Concept of mind/body dualism
    Mind-Body relationship: Bills --> produces anxiety --> nervous system reacts --> ulcers
  94. Direct and indirect impact of stress
    • Indirect Response: External, eating, sleeping, (negative coping skills), venting is bad
    • Direct Response: changes in nervous, immune systems
  95. Fight/Flight/Freeze (and examples)
    Fight our body goes into overdrive (things that are not in our norm). Flight we run away. Freeze we do nothing.
  96. Differences/benefits between REM and Non-REM sleep
    • REM dream, mental repair, you body is paralyzed
    • Non-REM your body physically heals itself
  97. Good sleep habits
    • reset your body to a normal body clock (Takes about six weeks to reset body clock)
    • Set the same bed/wake up time
    • Limit use of bedroom (not for playing/hanging out)
    • Exit bedroom 15/20 minutes of waking
    • Eliminate ALL naps
    • Put your feet on your floor at the same time every morning.
  98. Primary and Secondary prevention for treatment of health:
    • Primary preventive behaviors: sleep, eating, exercise, avoiding smoking and alcohol, sunscreen, seat belts - everything you do to increase healthy behaviors
    • among healthy people.
    • Secondary Prevention: promote healthy behaviors in those who are already on a bad path, or have a predisposition.
  99. Personal Health Inventory (what are you look at with it?)
    Eating habits, sleeping habits, sunscreen, seat belts, smoking, drinking
  100. Contingency contracting (treatment):
    Contingency contracting: if you do _______ then you can __________.
  101. Stimulus Control
    Behavior Modification: remove stimulus to change behaviors.
  102. Tuskegee experiment
    Syphilis didnt treat everyone
  103. Tarasoff
    Therapist called the cops and the girl got killed because they confronted him not the girl. Duty to warn case
  104. 3 things therapists have duty to warn about:
    Self, others, serious property damage, and abuse

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