Court Cases

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Court Cases
2014-04-27 17:09:07
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  1. Tinker v. Des Moines,
    1969 – A student wanted to protest the Vietnam War, so he and some friends wore a black armband. They were suspended. The Supreme Court ruled that clothing is an extension of free speech (First Amendment), and the students should not have been suspended
  2. New Jersey v. T.L.O.
    1985 - T.L.O. was a girl smoking in the girls room. The principal came in and confiscated her pocketbook which had rolling-papers for drugs and a list of contacts to sell them to. She was suspended. The New Jersey court said that the search was illegal. However, the Supreme Court ruled that in schools, search rights could be limited to protect the student body. This limited Fourth Amendment rights.
  3. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier,
    1988 – This was another freedom of speech case. The school newspaper was printing material about the private life of teenagers in the school. The Supreme Court ruled that the principal was allowed to censor said materials, to protect the rights of minors.
  4. Engel v. Vitale,
    1962 - The Supreme Court ruled that prayer in school is a violation to the free exercise clause of the First Amendment.
  5. Miranda v. Arizona,
    1966 - Ernesto Miranda admitted to charges of rape and kidnapping after a lengthy interrogation. Because he did not know that he had a right to remain silent, the Supreme Court ruled that Miranda did not receive fair due process. Since his Fifth Amendment rights were violated, he had to be retried. The controversy of the Warren Court’s decision has changed the way police conduct arrests. Now, a priority is the reading of “Miranda rights” upon arrest. Miranda was later retried and convicted.
  6. Gideon v. Wainwright,
    1963 - Clarence Gideon was accused of breaking into a billiards establishment in Florida. At his trial, he was denied the right to an attorney because Floridian procedure meant only appointing lawyers to capital offenses. He was found guilty. The Warren Court later ruled that Gideon’s rights were violated. His Sixth Amendment rights should have applied to the state of Florida because of the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause. He was retried and acquitted (found innocent). You may see a similar case called Escobedo v. Illinois that involved a similar issue.
  7. Mapp v. Ohio,
    1961 – Dollree Mapp’s house was searched in Ohio, as the police were looking for a fugitive. Instead, they found indecent pornographic material that violated the law. The police seized the evidence and Mapp was convicted. The Supreme Court heard Mapp’s appeal, and ruled that the evidence was not admissible in court. This was because the protections of the Fourth Amendment (unreasonable searches and seizures), applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause.
  8. Korematsu v. US
    Believing relocation was unconstitutional, Fred Korematsu refused to report to an internment camp. His criminal case went to the Supreme Court. The Court did not agree with him. The 1944 Korematsu decision stated that the Fourteenth Amendment, though guaranteeing equality in regular instances, could be denied in a time of war. Thus, Executive Order 9066 was constitutional. The Federal Government eventually acknowledged the regret of internment, and gave all survivors $20,000 in 1988. Korematsu’s record was wiped clean.
  9. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka KS
    Ended segregation in schools. “Separate but equal” is inherently unequal. This is a good essay to write, so here is more information.
  10. Plessy v. Ferguson
    Justified Jim Crow laws. “Separate but equal” is fine.
  11. Marbury v. Madison
    First use of judicial review.
  12. McCullough v. Maryland
    Maryland could not tax the National Bank because of federal Supremacy, and the right of the federal government to charter a bank. He also maintained that the Federal Government was supreme to states in regards to interstate commerce in Gibbons v. Ogden
  13. Dred Scott v Sanford
    Roger B. Taney said that slaves were property, and owners could not be deprived of them.
  14. Insular Cases
    Stated that Constitutional rights did not necessarily extend to US territories acquired during the Age of Imperialism.
  15. Muller v. Oregon
    In 1908, the court said that women were not permitted to work such long hours because they might damage their bodies for maternity.
  16. Schenck v. US
    Said that free speech was not absolute. One can’t utter something that creates a “clear and present danger,” as someone can’t shout “FIRE!” in a crowded theater.
  17. Slaughterhouse Cases
    The Fourteenth Amendment did not protect slaughterhouse workers prevented from conducting business.
  18. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. US
    Declared the NIRA unconstitutional in the New Deal.
  19. Butler v. US
    Declared AAA unconstitutional in the New Deal.