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What organ makes insulin?
What metabolic state does insulin trigger? What does insulin do?
absorptive (fed). Insulin lowers blood by promoting sugar to be taken in and used.
Most of glucose is absorbed during which state?
Most of fats are oxidized during which state?
post absorptive state
Glucose is oxidized by the brain in which state?
BOTH absorptive & post absorptive
What is the function of chylomicrons?
AKA packages of triglycerides
they carry triglycerides from the intestine (via lymphatics) to the adipose & muscle
What does essential amino acid mean?
cannot be made by the body, so it must come from the diet
The liver makes?
- -Makes amino acids
- -Carbohydrate metabolism:
- Gluconeogenesis- the synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids, lactate or glycerol
- Glycogenolysis- the breakdown of glycogen into glucose
- Glycogenesis- the formation of glycogen from glucose (muscle tissues can also do this)
- -Protein metabolism, synthesis as well as degradation.
- -Cholesterol synthesis (A bulk of the lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver)
- -Coagulation factors
- -Produces and excretes bile
- -Serum Albumin
- -Angiotensinogen (a hormone that is responsible for raising the blood pressure when activated by renin, an enzyme that is released when the kidney senses low blood pressure)
The liver stores?
- vitamins (A, D, B12, K)
- glucose (in form of glycogen)
Ketones are made from?
Glucose can be made from ______ if glucose is not readily available
Vitamin A - retinol
photorecptors (eyes), epithelial integrity, lysosome stability
- calcium (& phosphorus) absorption
- source: sun rays
- deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia
- free radical scavenger
- coagulation, prothrombin formation
- source: intestinal flora
- regenerates folic acid
- metabolic reactions essential to brain,
- - found in animal products, therefore vegans beware!
What is the number of calories needed to survive?
What decreases BMR (basal metabolic rate)
What organ controls body temp?
If body is cold, how does it increase temperature?
None of the above
(NOT by sweating, reduced muscle tone, increased surface blood flow)
SO WHEN you have a fever, the hypothalamus does what?
HYpothalamus MAINTAINS HEAT
pyrogens reset the "normal", and hypothalamus RAISES the temperature