Psych: Personality

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Psych: Personality
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  1. Trait
    Relatively stable and consistent personal characteristic that can be used to describe someone.
  2. Personality
    Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions.
  3. Factor Analysis
    Statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data.
  4. Five-Factor Model
    • Trait theory of personality
    • O.C.E.A.N.
  5. Openness
    People who rate highly in this factor are original, imaginative and curious.
  6. Conscientiousness
    These people are responsible, self-disciplined, organized and achieving.
  7. Extroversion
    These people are sociable, outgoing, talkative, fun loving and passionate.
  8. Agreeableness
    These people are good-natured, ward, gentle and cooperative.
  9. Neuroticism
    These people are unstable, prone to insecurity, anxiety, guilt and worry.
  10. Conscious
    In Freudian terms, thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering.
  11. Preconscious
    Freud’s term for thoughts, motives or memories that can voluntarily be brought to mind.
  12. Unconscious
    Freud’s term for thoughts, motives and memories blocked from normal awareness.
  13. Pleasure Principle
    In Freud’s theory, the principle on which the id operates which seeks immediate pleasure.
  14. Ego
    In Freud’s theory, the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the superego; from the Latin term ego, meaning “I.”
  15. Reality Principle
    According to Freud, the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and superego and the realities of the environment.
  16. Superego
    In Freud’s theory, the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality.
  17. Morality Principle
    The principle on which the superego may operate, which results in feelings of guilt if its rules are violated.
  18. Defense Mechanisms
    The Freudian theory, the ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality.
  19. Repression
    • Blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness.
    • Burying things way deep down.
  20. Denial
    Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it.
  21. Rationalization
    • Substituting socially acceptable reasons for unacceptable ones.
    • ex:"Everyone" has sex in highschool
  22. Projection
    • When you have the same idea/feeling as someone else, but you say their idea/feeling is wrong.
    • Being a hypocrite
  23. Reaction Formation
    When someone is really angry on the inside, but they remain calm on the outside.
  24. Regression
    Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age of level of development.
  25. Displacement
    • Taking your anger out on someone
    • Venting
    • Letting your feelings out on someone
  26. Regression
    • Taking yourself back to a place in your childhood
    • ex: crying the fetal position, biting your nails
  27. Psychosexual Stages
    In Freudian theory, five developmental periods, during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally.
  28. Oral
    From ages 0-18 months with conflict of weaning from the breast or the bottle.
  29. Anal
    From ages 18 months to 3 years, which involves the conflict of toilet training.
  30. Phallic
    From ages 3 to 6 years old, which involves overcoming the Oedipus Complex by identifying with same-sex parent.
  31. Latency
    From ages 6 years to puberty, which involves interacting with same-sex peers.
  32. Genital
    From puberty to adult, which involves establishing intimate relationships with the opposite sex.
  33. Oedipus Complex
    Period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent.
  34. Inferiority Complex
    Adler’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence.
  35. Collective Unconscious
    Jung’s concept of a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share.
  36. Archetypes
    According to Jung, the images and patterns of thoughts, feelings and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious.
  37. Basic Anxiety
    According to Horney, the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment.
  38. Self-Concept
    Rogers term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities and behavior.
  39. Unconditional Positive Regard
    Roger’s term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached.
  40. Conditional Positive Regard
    Roger's term for acceptance and caring given to a person only for meeting certain standards of behavior.
  41. Self-Actualization
    Maslow’s term for the unborn drive to develop all ones talents and capabilities
  42. Self-Efficacy
    Bandura’s term for a person's learned expectation of success.
  43. Reciprocal Determinism
    Bandura’s belief that cognitions, behaviors and the environment interact to produce personality.
  44. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    The most widely researched and clinically used self-report personality test (sort of created by Starke Hathaway)
  45. Projective Tests
    Psychological tests using ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots of drawings, which allow the test taker to project his or her in unconscious onto the test material.
  46. Rorchach Inkblot Test
    A projective test that presents a set of ten cards with symmetrical abstract patterns, known as inkblots, and ask respondents to describe what they see in the image; their response is thought to be a projection of unconscious processes.
  47. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    A projective test that shows a series of ambiguous black-and-white pictures and asks the test-taker to create a story related to each; the responses presumably reflect a projection of unconscious processes.
  48. Individualistic Cultures
    The needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group.
  49. Collectivistic Cultures
    The needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual.
  50. Psychoanalytic Theories
    Theories of personality that attempt to explain individual differences by examining how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings and actions.
  51. Psyche
    Is believed to function on three different levels of awareness or consciousness.
  52. Psychoanalysis
    A type of therapy designed for indentifying and resolving problems stored in the unconscious.
  53. Id
    • According to Freud is the source of instinctual energy, which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification
    • The Conscious
    • The Devil
  54. Rationalization
    A type of defense mechanism, which includes superegos and id’s by distorting reality.
  55. Infantile Sexuality
    Freud’s belief that children experience sexual feelings from birth.
  56. Power Envy (Penis Envy)
    Karen Horney’s belief that personality is driven by social forces
  57. Criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Theories
    • 1. Difficulty to test
    • 2. Overemphasis on biology and unconscious forces
    • 3. Inadequate empirical support
    • 4. Sexism
    • 5. Lack of cross-cultural support
  58. Humanistic Theories Criticism
    Naive assumption, Poor testability and narrowness.
  59. Cognitive Expectancies
    We have them prior to learning experiences, according to Bandura, that guide behavior and influence the environment.
  60. Internal Locus of Control
    Believe that they can control events in their lives through their own efforts.
  61. External Locus of Control
    People with this believe that environment and external forces have primary control over their lives.
  62. Phrenologist
    A person who will assess your personality.
  63. Inferiority Complex
    Adler’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence.
  64. Self-Concept
    Roger's theory of changing once you've finally accepted yourself
  65. Introvert
    Shy, reserved
  66. Learned Helplessness
    Theory based on conditioning and cognitive distortions
  67. Positive Psychology
    All about finding ways to change cognitions, perceptions, and behaviors into positive ones to make both individuals and communities thrive
  68. Self-Serving Bias
    Most people accept more responsibility for good deeds than bad, and for successes than failures because they see themselves as better than the average everyday person
  69. Anima
    The feminine side of yourself
  70. Animus
    The masculine side of yourself
  71. Shadow
    Bad side of yourself

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