Sociology Final Part 1

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Sociology Final Part 1
2014-05-04 20:58:12
Part 1
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  1. cultural universals are elements of culture that ........
    are part of every known culture
  2. culture is a source of human freedom because.....
    culture is changing and offers a variety of opportunities
  3. dependency theory different from modernization theory by.....
    • explains global inequality is due to historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones.
    • modernization- technological and cultural differences between nations.
  4. education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including.....
    basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
  5. elements of social control in everyday life include.....
  6. ethnocentrism refers to.....
    the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
  7. examples of people applying their knowledge of sociology at work include people in.....
    colleges and universities, government agencies ro private foundations and businesses, companies who want to be sure that products program and policies they create get the job done at the lowest costs.
  8. family is important to the socialization process because.....
    • it is the first setting of socialization
    • greatest impact on attitudes and behavior
    • family's social position shapes child's personality 
    • ideas about gender are first learned in a family
  9. feminists support all but one of the following.  Which is the one state that feminist do not support?
    • endorses the social inequality of women and men and opposes patriarchy and sexism 
    • seeks to eliminate violence against women
    • advocates giving women control over their reproduction
  10. following the thinking of C. Wright Mills, we would expect the sociological imagination to be more widespread in a population....
    being an outsider or experiencing a social crisis
  11. George Herbert mead considered the self to be.....
    part of our personality and includes self awareness and self image
  12. Herbert Spencer described human society as a complex system having much in common with.....
  13. Here are four statements describing group dynamics....  Which of them is not an expression of group-think?  
    the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
  14. If marginality encourages sociological thinking, we would expect people in which category listed below to make the most use of sociological perspective?
    • minorities
    • "outsiders"
  15. If you followed the lead of Max Weber, you would think of social stratification in terms of.....
    • conflict exists between people at various positions on a multidimensional hierarchy of SES
    • SES (socioeconomic status) a composite ranking based on various dimension of social inequality
  16. If you were a prisoner, a maximum security prison would be which of the following types of organizations from your point of view?
    coercive organization (forced people to join)
  17. If you were to apply modernization theory to the problem of global poverty, you might point to which of the following traits of low-income nations?
    • limited industrial technology 
    • low income don't want to adopt new technology 
    • tradition is greatest barrier 
    • Rostow's Stages of Modernization: 
    •    Traditional 
    •    Take off
    •    Drive to technological maturity 
    •    High mass consumption
  18. If you were to summarize the lesson learned from the case of Anna, you would correctly conclude that....
    cutting people off from the social world is very harmful.  Long term isolation can affect the development of physical and personality growth.
  19. In Robert Merton's strain theory of deviance, which of the following concepts refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them?
    strain between our culture's emphasis on wealth and limited opportunity to get rich gives rise, among the poor to theft, the sale of drugs, or other street crime
  20. In the United States, romantic love.....
    often subsides and ends in divorce
  21. In the United States, the MOST widespread health problem related to eating is.....
  22. In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologist claim that....
    socialization is a matter of nurture rather than nature.  physical and mental traits are development through nurture.
  23. "Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime....
    is the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
  24. "Personal space" refers to.....
    the surrounding area over which an individual makes some claim to privacy
  25. A caste system is defined as.....
    social stratification based on ascription or birth
  26. A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it.....
    by emphasizing what is unique in each social scene, risks overlooking the widespread influence of culture, as well as factor such as class, gender, and race.
  27. A hate crime is defined as....
    criminal act against a person or person's property by an offender motivate by racial or other bias
  28. A majority of the world's people live in.....
    middle income countries
  29. A role set refers to.....
    a number of roles attached to a single status
  30. A secondary group is a social group that....
    large, impersonal, goal-oriented, and often of shorter duration ex college class or a coporation
  31. A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition which of the following?
  32. A symbolic-interaction approach to health and medicine emphasizes....
    • the meanings that people attach to health illness, and medicare care.  These meanings are socially constructed by people in everyday interaction:
    • our response to illness is not always based on medical facts
    • how people define a medical situation may affect how they feel
  33. A theory states that increasing a person's formal higher education results in increased earnings over the individual's lifetime.  In this theory, "higher education" is the.....
    social conflict theory
  34. Absolute poverty is....
    a deprivation of resources that is life-threatening
  35. According to Erving Goffman, we engage in a ______ when we we costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey information to others.
  36. According Karl Marx, social stratification in capitalist society always involves....
    • class conflicts
    • capitalist exploit the proletarians, who sell labor for wages
  37. According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as....
    significant others
  38. According to dependency theory, poor countries have become dependent on rich nations because....
    • narrow, export-oriented foundations
    • lack of industrial capacity
    • foreign debt
  39. An inmate who loses the capacity for independent living is described as....
  40. Assume you were listening to a lecture on Durkeim's approach to deviance.  Which of the following statements might well be the focus of the lecture?
    • deviance is a normal element of society that: 
    • affirms cultural norms and values
    • clarifies moral boundaries
    • brings people together
    • encourages social change
  41. Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see the social stratification may be universal, but ______ varies from one society to another.
    social mobility
  42. Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as.....
  43. Cultural transmission refers to the process of.....
    by which one generation passes culture to the next