Ecology final set II

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lacythecoolest
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272186
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Ecology final set II
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2014-04-28 01:43:25
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ecology
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2nd set for ecology final
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  1. population increase under idealized conditions
    exponential population growth
  2. exponential growth at its max
    intrinsic rate of increase
  3. dN/dt=r(max)N
    equation of exponential population growth
  4. what does exponential population growth result in
    J-shaped curve
  5. What does the J-shaped curve of exponential growth characterize?
    • rebounding populations
    • elephants @cougar nat. park
    • deer
  6. exponential growth + carry capacity=
    logistic growth
  7. model type where the per capita rate of increase declines as K is reached
    logistic growth model
  8. max population size the environment can support
    carrying capacity
  9. how to construct the logistic model
    • exponential model
    • +expression that reduces per capita rate of increase
    • as N increases
  10. whats going on when the logistic growth model overshoots
    • environment is pushing back
    • population starts increasing @ a decreasing rate
    • at inflection point N=K
    • K=carrying capacity
  11. difference between exponential growth graph vs. logistic growth graph
    • * exponential: no K, dN/dt=N
    • *logistic growth: sigmoid curve, (K-N)/K
  12. what happens when K is approached or overshot
    oscillation
  13. 3 graphs for logistic models
    • paramecium-typical
    • daphnia-oscillation
    • sparrow-fluctuations
  14. pluses and minuses of the logistic model
    • useful for estimating possible growth
    • model fits few real populations
  15. type of species for logistic model that's there for the long haul
    type of density sensitivity
    • K species
    • density-dependent selection
  16. type of species for logistic model that's prolific and not good competitors
    type of density sensitivity
    • r species
    • density-independent selection
  17. list 3 things related to the exponential growth model
    • r, birth rate - death rate
    • intrinsic rate of increase
    • J-shaped curve
  18. list 5 things related to logistic growth model
    • K, carrying capacity
    • K-N/K
    • sigmoid curve
    • inflection point
    • overshoot, oscillation
  19. concepts of K- and r- selection are somewhat controversial, bc may be oversimplifications
    r-K continuum
  20. population where birth rate and death rate do not change with population density
    density-independent populations
  21. population where birth rates and death rates rise w/population density
    density-dependent population
  22. regulates population growth
    negative feedback
  23. 6 reasons/factors for density dependent population regulation
    • competition for resources
    • territoriality
    • health
    • predation
    • toxic wastes
    • intrinsic factors
  24. in crowded populations, increasing population density intensifies intraspecific competition for resources
    competition or resources
  25. subset of homerange
    place where animals will defend
    territoriality
  26. 3 examples of health influences in dense populations
    • Spanish Flu
    • Airline attendants
    • Chronic Wasting Disease
  27. explain DD populations and predation feeding preferentially
    and example
    • Predator shift:
    • as a prey population builds up, predators may feed preferentially on that species
    • fly fishers-trout
  28. example of toxic waste accumulation contributing to DD regulation of population size
    yeast levels top at 13% for wine because it cannot tolerate higher ethanol environment
  29. internal,physiological factors that appear to regulate population size
    intrinsic factors
  30. focuses on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in pop size
    population dynamics
  31. example of long-term population study to prove that populations of large mammals are stable over time
    isle royale moose
  32. groups of populations linked by immigration and emigration
    metapopulations
  33. where are extreme fluctuations in pop size more common
    invertebrates
  34. two factors that result in greater stability in populations
    • high immigration
    • high survival
  35. graph representing island w/less migration vs island w/large migration
    ecological vaccum- if island pop is decreased it will get filled by mainland birds=pop stability

    island further away-takes a long time to rebound
  36. these are influence by complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors
    boom-and-bust cycles
  37. about when did the human population grow exponentially?
    1650
  38. when did the human population growth rate start to slow?
    • 40 years ago
    • increasing at a decreasing rate
  39. who predicted serious problems if human don't maintain pop stability
    • Paul Elich
    • "Population bomb"
    • ZPG
  40. ZPG
    zero population growth
  41. 2 ways to achieve balance, demographic transistion
    • ZPG=
    • high birth-high death
    • low birth-high death
  42. moves regional patterns of pop change from 1st state toward 2nd state
    demographic transition
  43. 2 structures that predicts growth trends for present and future in a country
    • population pyrimids
    • age and sex
    • how many @ age class
  44. what greatly varies among developed and developing countries but does not capture the wide range of human condition
    • infant mortality
    • lie expectancy
  45. describes how many humans the biosphere can support
    global carrying capacity
  46. how many planets would it take for everyone on earth to live like americans?
    4 and 1/2
  47. external physiological factors that appear to regulate population size
    extrinsic factors
  48. two uses for population pyramids
    • post reproductive-what's happened in the past, make futures plans ie incentives to have children
    • pre reproductive
  49. concept that summarizes the use of land and water needed to sustain people of a nation/ how close we are to the carrying capacity of the earth
    ecological footprint
  50. what are we doing by importing goods?
    exporting pollution and deforestation
  51. step up from population
    community
  52. an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction
    biological community
  53. 5 community interactions
    • competition
    • predation
    • herbivory
    • symbiosis
    • disease
  54. interspecific interaction - -
    competition
  55. 4 interspecific interaction +-
    • predation
    • herbivory
    • parasitism
    • disease
  56. 2 interspecific interaction ++
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
  57. one species benefits from the interaction, the other is unaffected by it
    commensalism
  58. example of parasitism in great lakes
    • lamprey eels,
    • from ocean, used to bigger fish
    • in great lakes is killing fish because they are smaller
  59. example of disease
    • ebola virus
    • from africe, finding it by international airports
    • kills quickly, bleed from orfices
  60. two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place
    • competitive exclusion principle
    • Gause's hypothesis
  61. total of species use of biotic and abiotic resources
    species ecological niche
  62. father of modern ecology that studies ecological niches
    Eugene Odum
  63. where the species lives, eats, lives on
    habitat address of organism
  64. what the species does, what prey it feeds on, size
    niche-profession
  65. the circle for a species niche, what it would like to do
    fundamental niche
  66. the species niche circle plus competitions niches
    realized niche
  67. differentiation of ecological niches, enabling similar species to coexist in a community
    resource partitioning
  68. way to express why animals are distributed in a close community, like a tree
    ghost of competition past
  69. person who studied warblers location on a conifer
    MacArthur
  70. tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric pops of 2 species than allopatric pops of same 2 species
    character displacement
  71. alone species
    independent
    allopatric
  72. same species overlapping
    animals that are the same but feed on different food
    sympatric
  73. example of sympatric vs allopatric
    • Galapagos finches beak sizes
    • 2 on 1 island-different sized beaks
    • 2 on separate islands-same beak sizes
  74. interaction where one species kills and eats the other
    predation
  75. 5 predator adaptations for competing in an ecological niche
    • claws
    • teeth
    • fangs
    • stingers
    • poison
  76. 6 defensive adaptations prey have developed for surviving in an ecological niche
    • hiding
    • fleeing
    • self-defense
    • alarm calls
    • morphological
    • physiological
  77. coloration or camouflage that makes prey difficult to spot
    cryptic coloration
  78. animals with effective chemical defense often exhibit bright warning coloration
    aposematic coloration
  79. frogs that were use for neurotoxin, to kill
    and for licking
    poison arrow frogs
  80. what did Dr. Standora grab onto that was clearly aposematic
    fire coral
  81. a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
    Batesian mimicry
  82. two or more unpalatable species that resemble each other
    Mullerian mimicry
  83. plant mechanical and chemical defenses and adaptations
    herbivory
  84. types of plant mechanical defenses, herbivory
    thorns
  85. location plants have bad tasting chemicals
    new growth areas
  86. plants that eat bugs
    carnivorous plants
  87. 2 types of carnivorous plants
    • active-venus fly trap
    • passive-pitcher plant
  88. biological magnification that happens with herbivory
    • cadmium in larvae prey
    • =less healthy plant shoots
  89. what 2 types of community interactions exerts substantial influence on populations and the structure of communities
    • parasitism
    • disease
  90. animal that has eggs laid on it
    • parasitoid
    • wasp lays eggs on caterpillars,
    • immediate food source
  91. how have caterpillar evolved to avoid being a parasitoid
    mimicry with tufts of hair that look like eggs
  92. 3 types of pathogens, disease-causing agents
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • protists
  93. disease that has killed 100,000's of birds in the last 5 years
    west nile virus

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