Chapter 23-1

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  1. What are the levels of Regulation of Metabolism?:
    • Enzymes, Reactants / Products
    • Metabolic Pathways, or at least linked reaction sequences
    • Tissues
    • Organs and organ systems
    • An entire organism
  2. Enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates change as a response to:
    • Shifts in equilibria (Mass Action Ratios)
    • Reactant/product availability (Acceptor Control)
  3. What concentrations of key molecules help meet the biological needs of metabolism?:
    • Phosphoryl group donors (ADP/ATP ratios)
    • Reducing equivalents (NAD+/NADH ratios)
    • Structural monomers (Amino acids, sugars, nucleotides)
    • Nucleic acids for DNA replication, transcription/translation and cofactors for metabolic reactions
  4. How do cells respond to extracellular signals?:
    • Hormones
    • Dissolved gasses (N2, O2, NO, CO2)
    • Pathogens
    • Light, sound, "taste" of molecules, etc
  5. The cells in a tissue act as a functional unit to control what in the whole tissue?:
    • Control the flow of energy via Mass Action Ratios
    • Control the "Response" to any given signals
    • Control the concentrations of key reactants/products
  6. Metabolic regulation is based on what kinds of tissues?:
    Liver or adipose or muscle or brain --> blood
  7. Keep in mind the big picture is: How are concentrations of the most important molecules regulated?
  8. What BioMolecule concentrations does the liver metabolism control?:
    • Carbohydrate
    • Lipid
    • Protein
    • Nucleic acid
Card Set
Chapter 23-1
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