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Explain where the CR is centered on an AP
projection Lspine on a 14x17 cassette.
What angulation and orientation do we use for an
AP/ PA coccyx?
10 degrees cephalad for PA, 10 degrees caudad for AP axial
What kind of angulation do we use for a PA/AP
15 cephalad AP, 15 caudad PA
On the lumbar spine, when you do oblique how
much is the patient rotated for the upper, mid and lower?
- 45 degrees for upper,
- 50 degrees for L1/L2,
- 30 degrees for L5/S1
What do you see with an RPO and LPO for lumbar?
- RPO downside zygapophyseal join,
- LPO left downside joint
What do you need to see for an AP lumbar image?
- Lumbar vertebral joints,
- spinous and
- transverse processes,
- SI joints andsacrum,
- T11-distal sacrum
When you look at a lateral Lspine, what can you
do to correct sag of the spine?
Place sag side down or add a radiolucent spongeunder waist
What are the criteria for an AP sacrum?
Sacrum, SI joints, and L5/S1 intervertebraljoint space. No rotation indicated by alignment of the median sagittal crestsand coccyx with the symphysis pubis. Correct alignment of the sacrum and CRdemonstrated the sacrum free of foreshortening and the pubis and sacralforamina are not superimposed. Collimation to area of interest
Know your 4 curves,
- First Compensatory Curve
- First primary Curve
- Second Compensatory Curve
- Second primary Curve
- compensatory,lordotic. Primary curves-thoracic and sacral-convex
The bony thorax consists of
the sternum anteriorly,thoracic vertebrae posteriorly,12 pairs of ribs
Know ribs. Which ones are true, floating and false?
- True ribs 1-7,
- False Ribs 8-12,
- Floating Ribs 11 & 12
What can you find in the costal groove?
Bloodvessels and nerves
What are the positioning criteria for a sternum?
- RAO 15-20 degree rotation,
- Top of IR about 1.5” above jugular notch, CRdirected to center of sternum 1” left of midline and midway between jugularnotch and xiphoid process. Lateral sternum
much do you rotate for oblique ribs?
Rotate patient into 45°
that the clavicle articulate with.
AC and sternoclavicular joints