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____ acquire and market masters.
_____ leads to more licensing of masters.
Physical sales decline
The "major" recording corporations include...
- Universal (owns EMI)
True or False: Recordings market is a tight oligopoly.
The major corporations control ____% of the recording market.
Edison's Phonograph was invented in...
Independent labels control about ___% - ___% of market.
______ are recouped to the label from royalties later earned.
Why acquire new artists?
- -Cost less to produce
- -Require smaller advances
- -Can be more profitable since deals can be 360.
- -Can reflect current trends/tastes.
Recording contracts typically pay royalties based on _____.
_____ give labels participation on other income streams of the artist.
____ and ____ require minimum pay scales and other benefits for recording artists.
- AFM (American Federation of Musicians)
- AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists)
Of the A&R's functions, which has lower risk and higher?
- Acquire recording: Lower
- Produce recording: Higher
True or false: Artists record for several labels at a time.
New artists rate for royalty is...
These rates usually include Producer % known as...
- All-In royalty
Describe an advance.
- Pre-payments of royalties.
- Recoupable to the label from royalties before giving artist any royalties.
Reserves in royalty calculation are usually...
The base rate per unit is...
____ are songs written or owned in whole or part by artist (or producer).
Label tries to pay less than full statutory compulsory mechanical rate known as...
- Controlled Compostions
- 3/4 rate.
A "passive" 360 deal gives the label ____ from that area.
The 3 functions of the producer...
- A&R function: find talent
- Production Manager: Get best performance and supervise, mix, master, etc...
- Business Management: Budget, taxes, etc...
Producer royalties are...
3-6% of PPD.
Audio Engineers include...
- Senior engineers
- Assistant Engineers
- Freelance Engineers
- Maintenance Engineers
Production Organizations include...
- SPARS: Society of Professional Audio Recording Services
- AES: Audio Engineering Society
- SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
The Four P's of Marketing include...
Sales data is collected by...
Airplay data is collected by...
- BDS: Broadcast Data Systems
____ is the most listened to genre, but ____ is the most sold.
____ is selling product for less than wholesale.
Having less $ left over is...
Having more $ left over is...
- Low Margin (High Cost)
- High Margin (low Cost)
____ advertising is internal.
____ advertising is external.
____ advertising works with retail.
- Trade Advertising
- Consumer Advertising
- Co-op Advertising
___% of consumers learn about new music via the radio.
Subscription Music Services represented ___% of digital sales.