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- First antibody produced during primary response
- Pentamer molecule
- Large size, so it stays in the blood
- provides longest term protection
- Generally first in secondary response
- transported to fetus, and protects it for 6 months
- found in colostrum
- mostly a dimer
- most abundant Ig class
- produced by MALT tissue
- important in mucosal immunity
- found in secretions
role in devleopment and maturation of immune response
- barely detectable in blood
- most of it is bound to basophils and mast cells
- deals with allergies
What occurs during neutralization?
prevents toxins and viruses from attaching to cell surface
What occurs during opsonization?
Phagocytosis is easier and more efficient
What is the complement system activation?
activation of complement system which leads to opsonization, inflammation, and formation of MACs and cell lysis
What occurs during immobilization and prevention of adherence?
prevents bacteria from entering host
What occurs during agglutination?
antibodies can bind to different bacteria simultaneously, making phagocytosis easier
What occurs during antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity?
antibodies bind to large pathogen so NK cells bind to Fc portion of antibody and cause cell lysis
What is mutualism?
When both partners benefit from a relationship
What is commensalism?
when one partner benefits and the other is unharmed
What is parasitism?
When one partner benefits at the others expense
What are resident microbiota?
microbes that inhabit the body for extended periods
What are transient microbiota?
Microbes that inhabit the body temporarily
What are the 3 protective roles of microbiota?
- covering binding sites
- using available nutrients
- produce compounds toxic to pathogens
What is colonization
establishment of the microbe on a body's surface
What is subclinical?
when there are no or mild symptoms
What is infections disease?
pathogen causes noticeable effects
What is the difference between signs and symptoms
symptoms are subjective and signs are objective evidence
What does virulent mean?
refers to degree of pathogenicit
What are virulence factors?
traits that allow the microorganisms to cause disease
What are communicable or contagious disease?
diseases that are easily spread
What is the course of an infectious disease?
- Incubation period-time between infection and onset of symptoms
- prodromal period-mild signs and symptoms
- illness-signs and symptoms of diseas
- convalescence- recuperation
What are acute infections?
symptoms develop quickly and last for a short time
What are chronic infections?
develop slowly and last months or years
What are latent infections?
never completely eliminated
What is a localized infection?
microbes limited to a small area
What is a systemic infection?
agents are spread throughout the body
What does -emia mean>
in the blood