Chapter 22: Respiratory System

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Chapter 22: Respiratory System
2014-04-28 18:44:15
Anatomy and Physiology
respiratory system
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  1. Respiration
    • Supply body with O2 and disposes of CO2 (waste)
    • It's four processes involve both respiratory and circulatory systems
    • (also functions in olfaction and speech)
  2. Processes of Respiration - Pulmonary Ventilation
    • Breathing
    • Movement of air into and out of lungs
  3. Processes of Respiration - External Respiration
    O2 and CO2 exchange between lungs and blood
  4. Processes of Respiration - Transport
    O2 and CO2 in blood
  5. Processes of Respiration - Internal Respiration
    O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
  6. Respiratory Zone
    • site of gas exchange
    • Microscopic structures - bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
  7. Conducting Zone
    • Conduits to gas exchange sites
    • Cleanses, warms, humidifies air
    • Includes all other respiratory structures
  8. Nose
    • Provides an airway for respiratory
    • Moistens and warms enter air
    • Filters and cleans inspired air
    • Serves as resonating chamber for speech
    • Houses olfactory receptors
  9. Nasal Cavity
    • Within and posterior to the external nose
    • Divided by midline - nasal septum
    • Posterior nasal apertures - open into nasal pharynx
    • Roof-ethmoid and sphenoid bones
    • Floor-hard (bone) and soft palates (muscle)
  10. Nasal Vestibule (nasal cavity)
    • Nasal cavity superior to nostrils
    • Skin containing sweat and sebaceous glands and hair follicles
    • Rest of nasal cavity lined with mucous membranes
  11. Respiratory mucosa
    • Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly to throat
    • Inspired air warmed by plexuses of capillaries and veins
  12. Nasal Conchae
    superior, middle, inferior
    • Protrude medially from lateral walls
    • Increase mucosal area
    • Enhance air turbulence (helps filter out large particles before air reaches the lungs)
  13. Nasal Meatus
    Groove inferior to each concha
  14. Functions of Nasal Mucosa and Conchae
    • During inhalation - filter, heat, and moisten air
    • During exhalation - reclaim heat and moisture
  15. Rhinitis
    inflammation of nasal mucosa
  16. Pharynx
    • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
    • Regions of the pharynx: Nasopharynx - Oropharynx - Laryngopharynx
  17. Larynx
    • Attaches to hyoid bone
    • hyaline cartilage (except epiglottis)
    • Provides airway
    • Routes air and food into proper channels
    • Voice production - houses vocal folds
  18. Epiglottis
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Covers laryngeal inlet during swallowing
    • Covered in taste bad-containing mucosa
  19. Vocal ligaments
    • Form  true vocal cords
    • Appear white because they lack blood vessels
    • Vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from lungs
  20. Vestibular Folds
    • False vocal cords
    • Superior to vocal folds
    • No part in sound production
    • Help to close glottis during swallowing
  21. Trachea
    • Windpipe
    • from larynx into mediastinum
  22. Trachealis muscle
    • Connects posterior parts of cartilage rings
    • Contracts during coughing to expel mucus
  23. Carina
    Point where trachea branches into two main bronchi
  24. Right and Left Main Bronchi
    • Each main bronchus enters hilum of one lung
    • Each main bronchus branches into lobar bronchi (three on right, two on left)
  25. Respiratory Zone
    • Begins as terminal bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs
    • Alveolar sacs contain clusters of alveoli [sites of gas exchange] (elastic fibers on alveolar sacs)
  26. Alveoli
    • Surrounded by fine elastic fibers and pulmonary capillaries
    • Alveolar pores - connect adjacent alveoli (equalize air pressure throughout lung)
  27. Alveolar macrophages
    • keep alveolar surfaces sterile
    • (2 million dead macrophages/hour carried by cilia -> throat -> swallowed)
  28. Pleurae
    Thin, double-layered serosa; divides thoracic cavity into two pleural compartments and mediastinum
  29. Parietal pleura
    on thoracic wall, superior race of diaphragm, around heart, between lungs
  30. Visceral Pleura
    on external lung surface
  31. Pleural Cavity
    Contains - left lung, heart, right lung
  32. Pleural Fluid
    • fills slitlike pleural cavity
    • (Provides lubrication and surface tension -> assists in expansion and recoil)
  33. Mechanics of Breathing
    Pulmonary ventilation consists of two phases (inspiration and expiration)
  34. Atmospheric pressure (Patm)
    pressure exerted by air surrounding body
  35. Intrapulmonary Pressure (Ppul) (intra-alveolar)
    • Pressure in alveoli
    • Fluctuates with breathing
  36. Intrapleural pressure (Pip)
    Pressure in pleural cavity
  37. Pulmonary Ventilation
    • Inspiration and expiration
    • Mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in thoracic cavity
    • Volume changes -> pressure changes -> gases flow to equalize pressure
  38. Boyle's Law
    • Relationship between pressure and volume of a gas
    • P1V1=P2V2 (gases fill container; if container size is reduced -> increased pressure)
  39. Process of Inspiration
    • 1 Respiratory muscles contract
    • 2 Thoracic cavity volume increases
    • 3 Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases
    • 4 Intrapulmonary pressure drops
    • 5 Air (gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0
  40. Process of Expiration
    • 1 inspiratory muscles relax
    • 2 Thoracic cavity volume decreases
    • 3 Intrapulmonary pressure rises
    • 4 Air (gases) flows out of lungs down its pressure
  41. Forced Expiration
    • Active processes
    • uses abdominal (oblique and transverse) and internal intercostal muscles
  42. External Respiration
    diffusion of gases in lungs
  43. Internal Respiration
    Diffusion of gases at body tissues
  44. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
    • Total pressure exerted by mixture of gases = sum of pressures exerted by each gas
    • (The total pressure in a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas)
    • Partial pressure - pressure exerted by each gas in mixture
  45. Henry's Law
    • Gas mixtures in contact with liquid
    • Each gas dissolves in proportion to its partial pressure
    • At equilibrium, partial pressures in two phases will be equal
    • Amount of each gas that will dissolve depends on solubility and temperature
  46. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
    • Emphysema - enlargement of alveoli, causes lungs to lose elasticity
    • Chronic Bronchitis - production of excessive mucus