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2014-04-28 19:03:07

Module 15.2-15.4 Olfaction, Gustation
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  1. ´╗┐The sense of smell; involves specialized chemoreceptive neurons and delivers sensations directly to the cerebrum.
  2. Dissolved chemicals that stimulate olfactory neurons.
  3. What are the three cells located in the olfactory epithelium?
    1) Olfactory Receptor Cells 2) Supporting Cells 3) Basal Cells
  4. Sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium that are stimulated by odorants.
    Olfactory Receptor Cells
  5. Regenerative stem cells in the olfactory epithelium that divide and differentiate to produce new receptor cells.
    Basal Cells
  6. List the 5 steps in the olfactory pathway to the cerebrum.
    1) Odorants stimulate receptor cells 2) Axons gather and penetrate the cribriform plate 3) Synapse occurs in the olfactory bulb 4) Axons leave the bulb and travel to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system 5) Olfactory info in the limbic system and hypothalamus explains why smells can trigger memories and emotional responses
  7. List every structure involved in smell from the odorant to the cerebrum.
    1) Odorant 2) Olfactory 3) Olfactory nerve fibers 4) Cribriform plate 5) Olfactory bulb 6) Olfactory tract 7) Olfactory cortex 8) Limbic system 9) hypothalamus
  8. The sense of taste; provides info about the foods and liquids we eat and drink.
  9. Receptors distributed over the superior surface of the tongue and portions of the larynx and pharynx.
    Taste Receptors
  10. A pleasant, savory taste that is a characteristic of broth and cheese; is detected by receptors sensitive to amino acids, small peptides, and nucleotides.
  11. Taste receptors in the pharynx that affects water balance and the regulation of blood volume; when you drink water, they stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete a hormone to prevent over-ingestion of water.
    Water Receptors
  12. List the primary taste sensations.
    1) Sweet 2) Salty 3) Sour 4) Bitter 5) Umami
  13. What are gustatory cells stimulated by?
    Dissolved chemicals (such as Na+ from salt solutions or H+ from acids or sour solutions) that make contact, depolarizing the membrane, then dissolve through, or bind to receptor proteins. (Different tastes involve different receptor mechanisms)
  14. Protein complexes that use second messengers to produce their effects; Sweet, bitter and umami stimuli receptors use second messengers to stimulate the release of neurotransmitters.
  15. List the 5 steps in the gustatory pathway from the taste receptors to the gustatory cortex.
    1) Receptors respond to stimulation 2) Cranial nerves carry gustatory info 3) Synapse occurs in the medulla 4) Axons of the postsynaptic neuron cross over and enter the thalamus 5) After a synapse in the thalamus, the info is sent to the gustatory cortex of the insula
  16. List the structures involved in the pathway that carry gustatory information.
    1) Gustducins 2) Papillae 3) Taste buds 4) Taste pore 5) Taste hairs 6) Taste cells