Comm Exam 2

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  1. Ogden & Richards’ Triangle of Meaning
    • Thought -> Referent -> Symbol -> Thought etc. Thought: put labels of objects.
    • Chair = object, “chair is only the label we’ve chosen to put on it. Nothing
    • makes it a chair besides the fact that we choose to call it a chair. Referent <-> Symbol = Onomatopoeia
  2. Onomatopoeia
    words that sound like the sound they represent. when the referent and the symbol are the same thing
  3. what are the four attributes of language?
    • unified symbol system
    • social construction
    • code based
    • influenced by culture
  4. "a unified symbol system..."
    how to put these symbols together to make sense, AKA grammar
  5. "a social construction"
    made by us/society. we are constantly creating and developing language. making new words as new concepts arise
  6. "code based"
    different skill sets that we use to adopt different linguistic style, different ways/modes of speaking based on the notions we have
  7. elaborated codes
    having different ways of talking about a particular object or subject
  8. restricted codes
    have a single way of talking about a particular object or subject, we all start off with this. Bernstein claimed that people with lower socioeconomic status have this
  9. code switching
    can talk in different accents/vocabulary. Speak differently in different contexts
  10. "influenced by culture"
    different words mean different things. People develop language in the context of their own culture
  11. sapir-whorf hypothesis
    • linguistic determinism
    • linguistic relativity
  12. linguistic determinism
    language influences how we interpret the world
  13. linguistic relativity
    • because language affects thought, people who speak different languages perceive the world differently. 
    • the concept/word "freedom" means different things in different cultures. "biscuit" means different things here and in England. same words have different meanings
  14. profanity
    words or phrases that are socially constructed to be profance
  15. US Constitution on the First Amendment
    "Congress shall make no law..." = Congress is prohibited from passing laws that would prohibit you from speaking out against the government. limitations for public order, so if your right to say something disturbs public order then it is not okay
  16. racist language
    puts people into groups, ascribe them a label into which they might not necessarily belong (hate speech)
  17. generic man
    tendency to ascribe in language male terminology to positions or language (chairman, fireman, policeman)
  18. Generic He/His
    if we don't know the gender of a person, we make that person a man or plural
  19. heterosexist language
    hate speech favors/assumes heterosexuality
  20. relational message types
    • confirmation
    • rejection
    • disconfirmation
  21. confirmation
    acknowledges the presence of the other person as well as indicating acceptance of the person and your relationship
  22. rejection
    disagree with the person and indicate your unwillingness to accept something the other says or does
  23. disconfirmation
    ignore the person and their communication. this is never "appropriate
  24. I-statement
    always appropriate. owning your own behavior. "I am responsible for my own anger"
  25. You-statement
    blaming others for your own behavior. "you are responsible for my anger"
  26. language barriers
    • biased language
    • bypassing
    • lack of clarity
    • allness (indiscrimination) 
    • static evaluation
    • polarization
  27. biased language
    using language that reflects biases associated with age, sex, class, ability, sexual orientation
  28. bypassing
    confusion resulting from the use of a word(s) that evokes different meanings for different people (AI=artificial intelligence.. or artificial insemination?)
  29. lack of clarity
    inappropriate or imprecise use of language (President's day rather than "observation of washington's birthday")
  30. allness (indiscrimination)
    lumping things or people into all-encompassing categories (stereotyping, CNU students)
  31. static evaluation
    labeling people, objects, or events without considering change (first impressions impacting how we see someone or something without considering how things might have changed)
  32. polarization
    creating dichotomies (either/or terms) when they don't exist (black or white? no, usually a shade of grey)
  33. nonverbal vs non-oral
    • nonverbal: "all aspects of communication other than words themselves," includes sound behavior
    • non-oral: nonverbal that doesn't involve the use of vocal sounds
    • all non-oral is nonverbal, but not the other way around
  34. vocalics (paralanguage)
    voice characteristics (pitch, volume, pronunciation, etc)
  35. kinesics
    body movement
  36. where do we get the bulk of our information from the body?
  37. oculesics
    eye behavior
  38. haptics
  39. functions of touch (haptics)
    • playful
    • control
    • ritualistic
    • task-related
    • hybrid (mix of functions)
  40. Hall's Proxemic Distances
    • Intimate (0-18 inches)
    • Personal (18 inches to 4 ft)
    • Social (4-12 ft)
    • Public (beyond 12 ft)
  41. 3 types of territory
    • primary
    • secondary
    • public
  42. primary territory
    we have a right to control it and who has access to this space (dorm/home)
  43. secondary territory
    you claim it as long as you are in it (seat in class, professor's desk in the front of the room)
  44. public territory
    available to the entire public, anyone can potentially use it, no rights to claim space on it but not yours to control (the great lawn)
  45. Olfactics
    Smell. can sometimes trigger certain memories
  46. What environmental factors influence communication?
    color, lighting, room design
  47. What are the three time systems?
    • technical
    • formal
    • informal
  48. technical time
    scientific measurement. our society uses this as "formal time"
  49. formal time
    taught by society (what's important or not). Our society uses "technical time" as this. Some societies don't have seconds or minutes or months
  50. informal time
    • the way we as individuals use time
    • duration: time allocated for a particular event
    • punctuality: promptness associated with time keeping
    • activity: chronemic value. if a friend had something to talk to you about and you said you have an hour, would you cut them off after an hour?
  51. emotional communication
    talking about the experience of emotions
  52. communicating emotionally
    communication where emotion is a property of the message, rather than the content of the message (sometimes considered irrational)
  53. emotional contagion
    the process of transferring an emotion from one person to another (communicating emotionally with someone else)
  54. what are the 3 emotional categories?
    • joyful/affectionate
    • hostile
    • sad/anxious
  55. joyful/affectionate emotions
    happiness, passion, liking
  56. hostile emotions
    anger, contempt, disgust, jealousy, envy
  57. sad/anxious emotions
    sadness, grief, fear, anxiety
  58. What is the process of emotion?
    affect -> feeling -> emotion
  59. affect
    • biological response to a stimulus (physiological)
    • can be measured
  60. feeling
    physiological awareness of a stimulus (cognitive)
  61. emotion
    individual experience/response to affect and feeling (behavioral)
  62. dimensions of emotion
    • valence: whether the emotion is positive or negative (or neutral)
    • intensity: variance in terms of intensity (anxiety -> worry -> society)
  63. Forms of emotion
    • primary: pure emotions, similar across cultures (joy, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust)
    • secondary: combo of emotions, differ dramatically across cultures (jealousy = anger + fear + sadness)
Card Set:
Comm Exam 2
2014-04-29 00:57:41
what is life
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