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Ogden & Richards’ Triangle of Meaning
- Thought -> Referent -> Symbol -> Thought etc. Thought: put labels of objects.
- Chair = object, “chair is only the label we’ve chosen to put on it. Nothing
- makes it a chair besides the fact that we choose to call it a chair. Referent <-> Symbol = Onomatopoeia
words that sound like the sound they represent. when the referent and the symbol are the same thing
what are the four attributes of language?
- unified symbol system
- social construction
- code based
- influenced by culture
"a unified symbol system..."
how to put these symbols together to make sense, AKA grammar
"a social construction"
made by us/society. we are constantly creating and developing language. making new words as new concepts arise
different skill sets that we use to adopt different linguistic style, different ways/modes of speaking based on the notions we have
having different ways of talking about a particular object or subject
have a single way of talking about a particular object or subject, we all start off with this. Bernstein claimed that people with lower socioeconomic status have this
can talk in different accents/vocabulary. Speak differently in different contexts
"influenced by culture"
different words mean different things. People develop language in the context of their own culture
- linguistic determinism
- linguistic relativity
language influences how we interpret the world
- because language affects thought, people who speak different languages perceive the world differently.
- the concept/word "freedom" means different things in different cultures. "biscuit" means different things here and in England. same words have different meanings
words or phrases that are socially constructed to be profance
US Constitution on the First Amendment
"Congress shall make no law..." = Congress is prohibited from passing laws that would prohibit you from speaking out against the government. limitations for public order, so if your right to say something disturbs public order then it is not okay
puts people into groups, ascribe them a label into which they might not necessarily belong (hate speech)
tendency to ascribe in language male terminology to positions or language (chairman, fireman, policeman)
if we don't know the gender of a person, we make that person a man or plural
hate speech favors/assumes heterosexuality
relational message types
acknowledges the presence of the other person as well as indicating acceptance of the person and your relationship
disagree with the person and indicate your unwillingness to accept something the other says or does
ignore the person and their communication. this is never "appropriate
always appropriate. owning your own behavior. "I am responsible for my own anger"
blaming others for your own behavior. "you are responsible for my anger"
- biased language
- lack of clarity
- allness (indiscrimination)
- static evaluation
using language that reflects biases associated with age, sex, class, ability, sexual orientation
confusion resulting from the use of a word(s) that evokes different meanings for different people (AI=artificial intelligence.. or artificial insemination?)
lack of clarity
inappropriate or imprecise use of language (President's day rather than "observation of washington's birthday")
lumping things or people into all-encompassing categories (stereotyping, CNU students)
labeling people, objects, or events without considering change (first impressions impacting how we see someone or something without considering how things might have changed)
creating dichotomies (either/or terms) when they don't exist (black or white? no, usually a shade of grey)
nonverbal vs non-oral
- nonverbal: "all aspects of communication other than words themselves," includes sound behavior
- non-oral: nonverbal that doesn't involve the use of vocal sounds
- all non-oral is nonverbal, but not the other way around
voice characteristics (pitch, volume, pronunciation, etc)
where do we get the bulk of our information from the body?
functions of touch (haptics)
- hybrid (mix of functions)
Hall's Proxemic Distances
- Intimate (0-18 inches)
- Personal (18 inches to 4 ft)
- Social (4-12 ft)
- Public (beyond 12 ft)
we have a right to control it and who has access to this space (dorm/home)
you claim it as long as you are in it (seat in class, professor's desk in the front of the room)
available to the entire public, anyone can potentially use it, no rights to claim space on it but not yours to control (the great lawn)
Smell. can sometimes trigger certain memories
What environmental factors influence communication?
color, lighting, room design
What are the three time systems?
scientific measurement. our society uses this as "formal time"
taught by society (what's important or not). Our society uses "technical time" as this. Some societies don't have seconds or minutes or months
- the way we as individuals use time
- duration: time allocated for a particular event
- punctuality: promptness associated with time keeping
- activity: chronemic value. if a friend had something to talk to you about and you said you have an hour, would you cut them off after an hour?
talking about the experience of emotions
communication where emotion is a property of the message, rather than the content of the message (sometimes considered irrational)
the process of transferring an emotion from one person to another (communicating emotionally with someone else)
what are the 3 emotional categories?
happiness, passion, liking
anger, contempt, disgust, jealousy, envy
sadness, grief, fear, anxiety
What is the process of emotion?
affect -> feeling -> emotion
- biological response to a stimulus (physiological)
- can be measured
physiological awareness of a stimulus (cognitive)
individual experience/response to affect and feeling (behavioral)
dimensions of emotion
- valence: whether the emotion is positive or negative (or neutral)
- intensity: variance in terms of intensity (anxiety -> worry -> society)
Forms of emotion
- primary: pure emotions, similar across cultures (joy, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust)secondary: combo of emotions, differ dramatically across cultures (jealousy = anger + fear + sadness)