mobility, sexual reproduction, early skeleton (but still mostly soft bodies), all major animal phyla in existence today, bilaterians, and likely sponges and Cnidarian
Major faunal turnover occurred
before and after the Mesozoic era (after Paleozoic era and before Cenozoic era)
Which clades formed monophyletic groups early in animal evolution?
protostomes and deuterostomes
The Cambrian "explosion" refers to
the major overall diversification of animals (Metazoans) over a relatively short period of time; increase in taxonomic diversity (# of types of animals), skeletonization, trace fossil diversity, and body size
Which phyla make up the clade of protostomes?
Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, Annelida
During gastrulation, the mouth forms first.
Which phyla make up the clade of deuterostomes?
Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordates
During gastrulation, the anus forms first.
Phylum Arthropoda consist of
trilobites, chelicerate, crustaceans, and hexapods
Phylum Brachiopoda were highly diverse in the __ era.
There was a heavy loss of Phylum Brachiopoda at the end of the __ period.
Lophophorates refer to Phylum __
Clams are morphologically similar to Phylum __ but belong in Phylum __