Humanism (16th -19th century):
a 19th century term for the values and ideals of the European Renaissance, which placed a new emphasis on the expansion of human capacities. Reviving the study of Greek and Roman history, philosophy, and arts, the Renaissance humanists developed an image of 'Man' more positive and hopeful than that of medieval ascetic Christianity. rather than being a miserable sinner awaiting redemption from a pit of fleshly corruption, 'Man' was a source of infinite possibilities, ideally developing towards a balance of physical, spiritual, moral, and intellectual faculties. Most early humanists in the 16th and 17th centuries combined elements of Christian and classical cultures in what has become known as Christian Humanism. This time period was also influenced by the Reformation and Calvinism.