Chapter 21

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Chapter 21
2014-04-29 08:39:43
Chemistry 106
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  1. Nucleic Acids
    Molecules that store information for cellular growth and reproduction
  2. Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Ribonucleic Acid
    Large molecules consisting of monomers and nucleotides
  3. Nucleotides
    • A monomer that cossets of:
    •     -a pentose sugar
    •     -nitrogen containing base
    •     -phosphate ester with C5 OH group of sugar
  4. Pyrimidines
    • Cystine
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  5. Purines
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
  6. DNA Contains:
    • Cystine
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Thymine
  7. RNA Contains:
    • Cystine
    • Adenine 
    • Guanine
    • Uracil
  8. The DNA pentose sugar
  9. The RNA pentose sugar
  10. Nucleosides
    Nitrogen base linked by C1 glycosidic bond of sugar
  11. Diphosphate
    • 1 phosphate
    • a nucleotide
  12. Triphosphate
    • diphosphate
    • 1 nucleotide
  13. Structure of nucleic acid
    • Joined by phosphodiester bonds
    • Has free 5' phosphate group and 3' OH free at other end
  14. Double helix of DNA
    • Has 12 strands of nucleotides
    • Hydrogen bonds between A-T and G-C
    • Bases complement each other
  15. Complementary base of Adenine
    2 Hydrogen bonds to Thymine
  16. Complementary base of Guanine
    3 Hydrogen bonds to Cytosine
  17. DNA Replication
    • Pair bases in strand with new basest form new complementary bonds
    • Produce 2 new DNA strands
    • Exactly duplicate original DNA
  18. Hydrolysis Energy
    • Energy from hydrolysis of each nucleoside triphosphate adding to the complementary strand 
    • Used to form phosphodiester bond
  19. DNA Replication
    • Enzyme Helicase unwinds parent DNA at several sections
    • At each replication fork DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of ester bind of leading strand 5'3'
    • Lagging strand growing in 3'5' direction
    • Onazaki Fragments joined by DNA ligase to from single DNA strand
  20. RNA
    Transmits information from DNA to make proteins
  21. Messenger RNA
    • mRNA
    • Carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes
    • 5-10%
  22. Transfer DNA
    • tRNA
    • Brings amino acids to ribosomes to make proteins
    • 10-15%
  23. Ribosomal DNA
    • rRNA
    • Make up 75% of ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place
  24. RNA structure
    • A triplet called anitcodon that complements a codon in mRNA
    • Bonds to a specific amino acid on the receptor stem
  25. Protein Synthesis
    • Transcription: mRNA formed from gene on DNA strand
    • Translation: tRNA molecules bring amino acids to mRNA to build protein
  26. Transcription
    • A section of DNA containing the gene unwinds
    • One strand of DNA is copied starting at initiation point & has sequence TATAAA
    • mRNA synthesized using complementary base pairing with U replacing T
    • Moves from nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm
  27. RNA Polumerase
    • During transcription the polymerase moves along DNA in 3-5 direction to synthesize mRNA
    • Released at termination point
  28. Regulation of Transcript
    A specific mRNA synthesized when the cell requires particular protein
  29. Feedback Control
    End products speed up or slow down synthesis of RNA
  30. Enzyme Induction
    High levels of reactant induce transcription process to provide enzymes headed for reactant
  31. Genetic Code
    • Sequence of amino acids in a mRNA that determines the order for a protein 
    • Consists of consists of sets of 3 bases along mRNA codon
    • Different codon for all amino acids to build protein
  32. Start of codon
  33. Stop of codon
    • UAG
    • UAA
    • UGA
  34. Advantage of genetic Code
    • Helps reduce error 
    • Somewhat mutation resistant
  35. Protein Synthesis
    • Activation/Initiation
    • Translocation
    • Termination
  36. Mutation
    Alter nucleotide sequence in DNA
  37. Normal DNA
    Produce mRNA that provides instructions for correct series of amino acids in a protein
  38. Substitution
    • Different base substitutes for the proper base in DNA
    • Change in codon in mRNA
    • Wrong amino acid in polypeptide
  39. Frame Shift
    • Base added of detected from normal DNA sequence
    • All codons in mRNA and Amino Acids are wrong
  40. Recombinant DNA
    • DNA fragment from one organism combined into DNA of another
    • Mixed with plasmids and joined by ligase to produce protein
  41. DNA Fingerprinting
    • Restriction enzyme at DNA sample into small fragments
    • Radioactive isotope that adheres to certain base sequence to produce X pattern
  42. Polymerase chain reaction
    • Produce multiple copies of DNA in shirt time
    • Separate DNA by heating and repeated many times
  43. Viruses
    Small particles of DNA/RNA require host cell to replicate
  44. Reverse Transcription
    • A retrovirus that contains only RNA enters cell
    • Uses reverse transcription to produce DNA strand