Nutrition chp. 9 and 10

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  1. Lipids
    a broad group of fatlike substances with similar properties
  2. Triglycerides
    glycerol combined with three fatty acids; most food fats are triglycerides
  3. Fatty Acids
    A chemical molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded in a chainlike structure; combined through its acid group (-COOH) with the alcohol glycerol to form triglycerides
  4. Glycerol
    Has three carbon atoms and three hydroxyl groups
  5. Saturated
    no double bonds between carbons, which may be broken to allow bonding of more hydrogens
  6. Unsaturated
    Contain double bonds between some atoms have less hydrogen atoms
  7. Monounsaturated
    a fatty acid with one double bond between carbon atoms; capable of bonding more hydrogen
  8. Polyunsaturated
    Fatty acids with more than one double bond
  9. Cis-configuration
    The hydrogen bonds are on the same side of the double bond
  10. Trans-configuration
    The hydrogen atoms are on the opposite side of the double bond
  11. Emulsifying Agent
    a substance that allows an emulsion to form because it has some characteristics of each of the two immiscible liquids and forms a bridge between them
  12. Nitrogen Base
    A molecule with a nitrogen-containing chemical group that makes the molecule alkaline
  13. Cholesterol
    An essential component in the cells of the body, but to much can be associated with coronary heart disease; found in animal foods
  14. Phytosterols
    plant oils, not well absorbed by the human digestive tract and interfere with the absorption of cholesterol
  15. Invisible Fat
    fat that occurs naturally in food products such as meats, dairy products, nuts, and seeds
  16. Visible Fat
    Refined fats and oils used in food preparation, including edible oils, margarine, butter, lard, and shortening
  17. Linoleic Acid
    a polyunsaturated fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds
  18. Interesterification
    The hydrolysis of the ester bond between glycerol and the fatty acid.  The ester bond is reformed among the mixed free fatty acids and glycerol
  19. Melting Point
    The temperature at which a solid fat becomes a liquid oil
  20. P/S Ratio
    The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in a food, also sometimes calculated for a total diet
  21. Plasticity
    The ability to be molded or shaped; in plastic fats, both solid crystals and liquid oil are present
  22. Rancid
    The deterioration of fats, usually by an oxidation process, resulting in objectionable flavors and odors
  23. Winterization
    Used in oils for making salad dressings, temperature of the oil is lowered to a point at which the higher-melting triglycerides crystallize.
  24. Hydrogenation
    Changes liquid oils into more solid plastic shortenings
  25. Antioxidant
    A substance that retards or stops the development of oxidative rancidity; added to fatty foods in very small amounts
  26. Smoke Point
    the temperature at which smoke comes continuously from the surface of a fat heated under standardized conditions
  27. Flavor Reversion
    Involves a change in edible fats characterized by the development of an objectionable flavor prior to the onset of true rancidity
  28. Pro-oxidants
    A substance that encourages the development of oxidative rancidity
  29. Salad Dressing
    Emulsified semisolid food prepared from edible vegetable oil, an acidifying ingredient, egg yolk or whole egg, and a cooked or partly cooked starchy paste
  30. Mayonnaise
    An emulsified semisolid food prepared with edible vegetable oil, vinegar, and/or lemon juice or citric acid, and egg yolk, oil is dispersed in vinegar or lemon juice
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Nutrition chp. 9 and 10
2014-04-29 04:02:14
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