NU 350 Davidson Review 1-4

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wdgassett
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272348
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NU 350 Davidson Review 1-4
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2014-04-29 14:21:30
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Davidson chapters 1-4
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  1. acculturation
    The process by which people adapt to a new cultural norm.
  2. assimilation
    When a group completely changes their cultural identity to become part of the majority culture.
  3. integrative medicine
    An approach that combines mainstream medical therapies with complementary therapies for which there is evidence of safety and effectiveness.
  4. homeopathy
    A system of therapy developed by Samuel Hahnemann based on the “law of infinitesimal doses” in similia similibus curantur (likes are cured by likes), which holds that a medicinal substance that can evoke certain symptoms in healthy people may be effective in the treatment of illnesses having symptoms closely resembling those produced by the substance. [G. homoios, similar, + pathos, disease, + -y, noun suffix]
  5. naturopathy
    A system of therapeutics that relies on natural (nonmedicinal) forces (e.g., diet, exercise, and massage). Focus is on preventing disease and restoring function. (Stedman)
  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine includes the following therapeutic techniques
    • Acupuncture
    • Herbal therapy
    • Nutrition
    • Acupressure
    • Moxibustion (the application of heart from a small piece of burning herb)
    • Qigong (self-discipline that involves the use of breathing, meditation, self-massage, and movement.)
    • T’ai chi (a form of martial art; focuses on physical fitness and self-defense; a health discipline)
  7. Ayurveda
    The classical system of Hindu medicine.
  8. Reflexology
    A bodywork modality focusing on specific points on the feet, hands, and ears that are said to correspond through meridians to other organs or areas of the body. SYN reflex zone therapy [reflex + G. logos, study]
  9. Reiki
    A healing modality developed in Japan; involves the transfer of universal energy through the laying on of hands. The Reiki practitioner, attuned to vibrations of this force, is a conduit through which the energy passes to the recipient at specific anatomic sites (e.g., chakras). [Stedman]
  10. menarche – average age in USA
    • 12.5 years
    • May occur between ages 8 and 16.
  11. cycle length (menses)
    determined from the first day of one menses to the first day of the next menses.
  12. Amount of flow (menses)
    25-60 ml per period.
  13. Length of menses
    Usually lasts from 3-5 days, up to 7 days.
  14. hypomenorrhea
    Short duration of menstrual flow or, in other words, uterine bleeding at normal intervals but in decreased amounts.
  15. hypermenorrhea
    An abnormally long or heavy menstrual flow at normal menstrual intervals (sometimes used interchangeably with menorrhagia).
  16. oligomenorrhea
    • Bleeding, often irregular, occurring at intervals greater than 40 days.
    • oligo- = Combining forms meaning a few, a little; too little, too few. [Stedman]
  17. polymenorrhea
    • Bleeding, either regular or irregular, occurring at intervals of less than 22 days.
    • poly- = Prefix meaning many; multiplicity.
  18. menorrhagia
    Bleeding that is excessive in amount and duration, which occurs at regular intervals (hypermenorrhea) [meno-, Combining form indicating the menses, menstruation. [G. men, month] + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]]
  19. metrorrhagia
    • Bleeding, usually of a normal amount, occurring at irregular intervals.
    • [metro-, Combining forms indicating the uterus + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]
  20. menometrorrhagia
    • Bleeding that is excessive in amount and duration, which occurs at either regular or irregular intervals.
    • [meno-, menses, {G. men, month} + G. metra, uterus, + rhegnymi, to burst forth]
  21. intermenstrual bleeding
    Bleeding occurring between regular menstrual cycles.
  22. amenorrhea
    • The absence of menses.
    • Primary: if menstruation has not been established by 16 y.o.
    • Secondary: when an established menses (of longer than 3 months) ceases.
  23. dysmenorrhea
    painful menstruation
  24. self-care measures for dysmenorrhea
    • Vitamins B, E, B6
    • Heat: herbal tea, soaking in hot tub, heating pad.
    • Massage
    • Daily exercise
  25. Nursing-care measures for PMS
    • Advise to restrict intake of foods containing methylxanthines (chocolate, cola, coffee)
    • Restrict intake of alcohol, nicotine, red meat, animal fats, foods containing salt and sugar.
    • Increase intake of complex carbohydrates (whole grains, brown rice, oatmeal), protein, fruits, vegetables, veg. oils, incr. frequency of meals.
    • Supplementation of Vt. B6; Calcium; Magnesium; Vit. E; Herbal remedies
    • Aerobic exercises
  26. menopause
    • The absence of menstruation for 1 full year.
    • Usually between 45-52 y.o.
  27. Recommended Screenings: Mammogram
    Ages 40 +: Every 1-2 years
  28. Recommended Screenings: Clinical breast exam
    • At least every 3 years starting in 20s.
    • Age 40+: yearly
  29. Recommended Screenings: PAP test
    Every 1-3 years if have been sexually active or are older than 21.
  30. Recommended Screenings: Colonoscopy
    Age 50+: Every 10 years until 75
  31. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
    • Personal history of fracture after age 50
    • Current low bone mass
    • History of fracture in a first-degree relative
    • Being female
    • Being thin (<127 lb and/or small frame)
    • Advanced age
    • Family history of osteoporosis, especially a maternal hip fracture
    • Use of certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, anticonvulsants)
    • Abnormal absence of menses, early onset of menopause
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Low lifetime intake of calcium
    • Vit. D deficiency
    • Current cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol use
    • Inactive lifestyle
    • Being Caucasian or Asian.
  32. Risk Factors for CHD (coronary heart disease) in women
    • Family history of heart disease
    • Over 55 or postmenopausal
    • Overweight and obesity
    • Cigarette smoking and or tobacco use
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Elevated cholesterol
    • Race (highest in African American women)
  33. Assessment of Osteoporosis
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) testing recommended
    • All postmenopausal women age ?65
    • All postmenopausal women with fractures
    • Postmenopausal women age <65 with one or more risk factors
    • Height at each visit (loss of height often an early sign that vertebrae are becoming compressed because of reduced bone mass.)
  34. Prevention of Osteoporosis
    • Maintain adequate calcium intake
    • Vitamin D supplementation
    • Estrogen effective in preventing osteoporosis
  35. Medication Therapy for Osteoporosis
    • Bisphosphonates (e.g. IV zoledronic acid (Zometa) once a year. s.e.: deterioration of jaw bone with use over extended periods.)
    • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) [e.g. raloxifene (Evista)]
    • Salmon calcitonin (inhibits bone loss)
    • Parathyroid hormone (daily sub cu: activates bone formation)
    • Ultra-low-dose estrogen patches
  36. Complementary and Alternative Therapies
    • Nutritional supplements
    • Herbal supplements
    • Phytoestrogens
    • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
    • Acupuncture
    • Complementary and
    • Weight-bearing exercises
    • Pelvic-floor exercises
    • Vaginal lubricants, adequate foreplay
    • Relaxation techniques
    • Avoid trigger foods

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