added to meats and meat prodcuts to preserve their color and to inhibit rencidity and thwart bacterial growth. prevent the growth of the deadly botulinum bacterium.
poisons that act upon mucous membranes, such as those of the digestive tract
prevent oxidation in many processed foods. some people experience dangerous allergic reactions.
an often fatal food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium that grows without oxygen in non-acidic canned foods.
Generally Recognized as Safe: a list, established by the FDA, of food additives long in use and believed to be safe
Food and DRug Administration: the part of the department of health and human services' public health service that is responsible for ensuring the safety and wholesomeness of all foods sold in interstate commerce except meat, poultry, and eggs (which are under the jurisdiction of the USDA); inspecting food plants and imported foods; and setting standards for food consumption. The FDA also regulates food additives.
U.S. Department of Agriculture: the federal agency that is responsible for enforcing standards for the wholesomeness and quality of meant, poultry, and eggs produced in the United States; conducting nutrition research; and educating the public about nutrition.
World Health Organization: an agency of the United Nations charged with improving human health and preventing or controlling diseases in the world's people.
Environmental Protection Agency: the federal agency that is responsible for regulating pesticides and establishing water quality standards.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for monitoring foodborne diseases.
Butylated hydroxyanisole: preservatives added to many foods to prevent fat spoilage
chemicals linked with colon cancer... created from nitrites that once in the stomach are converted to nitrosamines.
Which food hazards are of the highest concern to the FDA
Microbial Foodborne illness
others: Natural toxins in foods
residues in foods
intentional approved food additives
genetically modified foods.
Primary causes of food-borne illness
Natural toxins in food
are a hazard mostly when people consume large quantities of single foods either by choice (fad diets) or by necessity (poverty)... e.g. mercury in fish, cyanogens, potatoes (solanine)
boil food to sterilize it and seal it in an impervious can or jar to preserve it, causes substantial losses of water-soluble vitamins.
Cool a food to its frozen state to stop bacterial reproduction and slow enzymatic reactions, negligible effects on nutrients
Dehydrate foods to eliminate the water that microbes require for growth. commercial drying leaves most nutrients intact; home drying may destroy substantial vitamin content.
Grind, heat, and blend foods with certified colors and flavors and push the resulting paste through screens to form various shapes. considerable nutrient losses occur.
Nurtient additives such as vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants
Which food additives may be harmful
all substances can be toxic in high enough quantities.
Factors that predict health outcome for infants
Healthy infant birth weight
6.5-9lbs... low birth weight is less than 5.5lbs
The most important determinant of infant health status
Mother's vitamin/iron status
iron deficiency anemia is common in pregnancy. The recommended intake for iron is double that of non-pregnant women. Women need more vitamins as well
Mother's calorie intake during pregnancy
need additional 55.000 kcalories. This can be met by eating an extra 340-450 kcalories a day during the second and third trimester.
Mother's protein intake requirement during pregnancy
an increase of 25 grams a day is recommended throughout pregnancy, but an intake of 12-15% of kcalories from protein should provide ore than enough.
Maternal weight gain pattern
2-4 lbs in the first trimester
about 1 lb per week in the second and third
Mother's intake of non-nutritive substances
alcohol, caffeine, cigarettes and illicit drugs may cause birth defects and low birth weight.
what organs are functioning in an 8 week fetus
by the eighth week of development all major external and internal structures have been formed.
How does a lack of food/nutrients affect a mother's milk production
doesn't affect the nutrients of the milk just how much is produced
Average milk production by lactating mothers
about 3 cups are produced daily
Breast feeding pros and cons vs bottle feeding
pros: provides protection against infection early in life, less likely to cause allergies, breast-fed babies have fewer problems with constipation, stronger suckling required by breast feeding aids in the development of facial muscles which help in speech development, less likely to be overfed
bottle-feeding: easier for the infants (if the infant is small or weak), limits the transmission of disease or drugs.
calorie recommendations for baby and lactating mother
producing 1 cup of milk requires about 330 extra kcalories per day and the milk itself contains about 175 kcalories.
How does TV affect a child's nutrition status
TV introduces kids to foods they might not otherwise be exposed too and promotes snacking on sweet, fatty, and salty foods. It also reduces activity.
Rate of hyperactivity in children
may be caused by early consumption of caffeine.
%RDA for nutrients provided by the School Lunch program
at least 1/3 of the recommended intake for certain nutrients.
Do certain foods cause acne
non have been found, but stress does
kcalorie requirements for kids
about 2000 kcalories a day... 70 kcalories per kilogram
How does age affect absorption and needs for nutrients in the elderly
decline of sense and smell which can contribute to impaired nutritional status by decreasing the appeal of food. Aging also causes changes in the gastrointestinal tract that may alter the ability to obtain proper nutrition.
Specific nutrition concerns for elderly individuals
reduced absorption of vitamin B12, folate, calcium and iron
What part of the immune system is involved in an allergic response
blood stream... "false alarm" body doesn't recognize the nutrients, and thinking that it is an antigen releases antibodies, histamine, and other defensive agents to attack the invaders.
an adverse reaction to a food or food additive not involving an immune response.
an immune reaction to a foreign substance, such as a component of food. also called hypersensitivity
Lifespan for men and women
Which populations (age groups) are at greatest risk for death by starvation world-wide
Kids? and women
Which foods are not harmful to the world's rain forest acreage