anatomy exam 4

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anatomy exam 4
2014-05-06 13:03:32

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  1. caudal to superior incisors
    incisive papilla
  2. transverse ridges of hard palate
    palatal rugae
  3. fan shaped muscle of tongue, rostral mandible
    m. genioglossus
  4. large caudal protuberance of the bovine tongue
    lingual torus
  5. Viborg's triangle
    • caudal border mandible
    • tendon of sternocephalicus
    • linguofacial vein
  6. jugular furrow
    • brachiocephalicus m. dorsally
    • sternocephalicus m. ventrally
  7. gluttural pouch is lined by
    respiratory epithelium
  8. path of maxillary n. & a.
    rostral alar foramen, maxillary foramen, infraorbital foramen (as infraorbital n. & a.)
  9. Three branches of mandibular n. that emerge together
    • lingual n.
    • inferior alveolar n.
    • mylohyoid n.
  10. Branch of V3, deep to ramus of manible
    buccal n.
  11. continuation of inferior alveolar nn.
    mental nn.
  12. mastication muscles, attach medial ramus, medial larger
    medial and lateral pterygoid mm.
  13. 2 bellies of digastricus and innervation
    • rostral belly: mylohyoid n.
    • caudal belly: VII
  14. joins lingual n. as it crosses pterygoid m.
    chorda tympani n. (VII)
  15. motor to eye and ear
    auriculopalpebral n. (VII)
  16. motor to cheek, lips, nose
    dorsal/ventral buccal nn. (VII)
  17. hyoid apparatus bones and insertion on skull
    • stylohyoid - inserts on mastoid process
    • epihyoid
    • ceratohyoid
    • basihyoid - palpable
    • thyrohyoid
  18. special sensory to root of tongue
  19. openings of auditory tubes and the pharyngeal tonsils are located in
    the nasopharynx
  20. muscle from the soft palate to the dorsal pharynx
    palatopharyngeus m.
  21. origin of hyopharyngeus m.
    thyrohyoid & ceratohyoid
  22. caudal pharynx, cranial esophageal sphincter
    cricopharyngeus m.
  23. Muscles of the pharynx that constrict
    • palatopharyngeus m
    • hyopharyngeus m
    • thyropharyngeus m
    • cricopharyngeus m
  24. pharynx muscle that dilates
    stylopharyngeus m.
  25. all pharyngeal muscles are innervated by
    IX, X
  26. Equine soft palate
    • long, ventral to epiglottis
    • epiglottis closes and soft palate moves dorsally when swallowing
    • dorsal displacement of soft palate - surgical
  27. processes of the arytenoid cartilages
    • corniculate - visual landmark
    • cuneiform - attach vestibular lig & m.
    • vocal - vocal lig
    • muscular - size of rima glottis/tension vocal ligs
  28. space beyond rima glottidis
    infraglottic cavity
  29. 4 ligaments of the larynx
    • cricotracheal
    • cricothyroid
    • vocal lig
    • vestibular lig
  30. between two laryngeal folds
    laryngeal ventricle
  31. thyrohyoid membrane
    fibroelastic connection between thyroid cart and caudolateral hyoid bones
  32. only abducter of cords
    dorsal cricoarytenoid m.
  33. cranial laryngeal n. external branch innervates
    cricothyroid m.
  34. cranial laryngeal n. internal branch innervates
    sensory to area rostral to vocal cords (laryngeal ventricle & vestibule)
  35. roaring in horses or larpar in dogs is caused by
    paralysis of the dorsal cricoarytenoid m.
  36. fold of dura mater within longitudinal fissure
    falx cerebri
  37. dura mater within transverse fissure
    tentorium cerebelli
  38. parallel ridges on the cerebellum are called
  39. metencephalon
    cerebellum + pons
  40. between 3rd & 4th ventricles
    mesencephalic aqueduct
  41. fibers from pons to cerebellum
    cerebellar peduncles
  42. 4 sinuses in the brain
    • dorsal sagittal sinus
    • straight sinus
    • transverse sinus
    • cavernous sinus
  43. internal carotid a. enters brain via
    tympano-occipital fissure
  44. first branch after internal carotid branches off
    occipital a.
  45. ventral branch to tongue, runs with XII
    lingual a.
  46. next ventral branch after lingual a., runs over angle of the mandible
    facial a.
  47. dorsal branch after occipital a., caudal ear canal
    caudal auricular a.
  48. dorsal branch of external carotid, rostral to ear
    superficial temporal a.
  49. maxillary a. begins after
    superficial temporal a.
  50. path of maxillary a.
    dives deep to masseter m., through alar canal, over MEDIAL pterygoid m. through infraorbital canal
  51. vein that drains sinuses in brain
    retroarticular v.
  52. arteries in the brain from rostral to caudal
    • rostral cerebral aa.
    • middle cerebral aa.
    • internal carotid aa.
    • caudal communicating aa.
    • caudal cerebral aa.
    • basilar a.
    • vertebral aa.
  53. intrinsic mm of larynx
    • cricothyroid m.
    • dorsal/lateral cricoarytenoid m.
    • vocalis m
    • ventricularis m.
  54. sternohyoideus m.
    sternothyroideus m.
    • O:manubrium, 1st costal cart
    • I:basihyoid bone, thyroid cart
    • A:draw tongue & larynx caudad
    • N: cervical spinal nn.
  55. mylohyoideus m.
    • O:medial mandible
    • I: median raphe & basigyoid bone
    • A: draw hyoid app craniad, lift floor mouth
    • N: V3
  56. geniohyoideus m.
    • O:mandibular symphysis
    • I: basihyoid bone
    • A: hyoid app & larynx rostrad
    • N: XII
  57. digastricus m.
    • O: jugular process of occipital bone
    • I: ventral border of mandible
    • N: caudal belly: VII
    •      rostral belly: V3
  58. sternocephalicus m.
    • 2 bellies I:
    • pars occipitalis: nuchal crest
    • mastoideus: mastoid process of temp bone
    • A: head/neck side to side
    • N:XI
  59. thyrohyoideus m.
    • I: thyrohyoid bone
    • A: hyoid app caudad
    • N: XII
  60. stylohyoideus m.
    • stylohyoid to basihyoid (very thin)
    • A: raise basihyoid bone
    • N: VII
  61. canine dentition formula
    • 3142
    • 3143
  62. feline dentition formula
    • 3131
    • 3121
  63. equine/bovine dentition formula
  64. bovine foramen lacerum
    • jugular foramen
    • carotid canal
    • oval foramen
  65. (ox) composed of orbital fissure & round foramen
    foramen orbitorotundum
  66. The facial crest (eq) is called the ____ in the ox
    facial tuberosity
  67. Horns are called
    cornual processes
  68. sinus within cornual process
    cornual diverticulum
  69. Orbital fissure cn nerves
  70. round foramen opens into roof of
    alar canal
  71. houses inner ear and articulates with mandible
    temporal bone
  72. contained within tympano-occipital fissure
    • jugular foramen (IX X XI exit)
    • carotid foramen
  73. stylomastoid foramen
    CN VII exits via internal acoustic meatus
  74. Just caudal to external acoustic meatus
    sylomastoid foramen (VII)
  75. turbinates covered in mucosa
  76. caudal nares, openings into nasopharynx
  77. supraorbital foramen what species? What nerve from what cranial nerve?
    • eq/ox
    • supraorbital n. - V1 (ophthalmic) -sensory to upper 2/3 of upper eyelid
  78. enlargement of ox tongue
    lingual torus
  79. 2 chambers of the frontal sinus in OX
    rostral & caudal
  80. paranasal sinuses in the horse
    • maxillary sinus
    • sphenopalatine sinus
    • conchofrontal sinus
  81. paranasal sinuses in OX
    • maxillary (lacrimal bulla)
    • frontal sinus
    • sphenoid sinus (hard to see)
    • palatine sinus (hard to see)
  82. bones of the nasal cavity
    • maxilla
    • nasal
    • palatine
    • ethmoid
  83. maxillary a. enters ____ and joins up with _____. They leave the ______ as _______
    • caudal alar foramen
    • V2
    • infraorbital foramen
    • infraorbital N & A
  84. Bones of the viscerocranium
    • incisive
    • lacrimal
    • mandible
    • maxilla
    • palatine
    • nasal
    • turbinates
    • zygomatic
    • hyoid apparatus
  85. Bones of the neurocranium
    • ethmoid
    • frontal
    • interparietal
    • occipital
    • parietal
    • pterygoid
    • sphenoid
    • temporal
    • vomer
  86. the bony orbit is formed by
    frontal and zygomatic bones
  87. The orbital ligament runs from
    zygomatic process of frontal bone to frontal process of zygomatic bone
  88. zygomatic arch
    temporal process of zygomatic bone to zygomatic bone
  89. inferior alveolar n arises from
  90. inferior alveolar n & a goes through _____ which is located medial of _____
    mandibular foramen, ramus
  91. medial to maxillary foramen and opens to nasal cavity via roots of 4th upper premolar
    maxillary recess
  92. 3 types of conchae
    • dorsal
    • ventral
    • ethmoidal
  93. Olfactory receptors are found within the ______
    ethmoidal turbinates
  94. Where is the nasogastric tube placed in horses
    junction of the common meatus with the ventral meatus
  95. duct opens in to the oral cavity and prevents desiccating caused by panting in the dog
    lateral nasal gland (maxillary recess)
  96. muscles of mastication
    masseter, temporalis, pterygoids, digastricus
  97. temporalis m.
    • O:  temporal fossa of cranial vault
    • I:  medial and lateral aspects of the coronoid process of the mandible
    • A:  raise mandible
    • N:  V3
  98. masseter m
    • O:  zygomatic arch
    • I:  masseteric fossa, angular process, and ventrolateral ramus of mandible
    • A:  raise mandible
    • N:  V3
  99. digastricus m.
    • O:  jugular process of occipital bone
    • I:  ventral border of mandible
    • A:  open mouth
    • N:  caudal belly—facial n.; rostral belly—mylohyoid n.
  100. pterygoid m
    • O:  pterygopalatine fossa
    • I:  medial aspect of coronoid and angular processes of mandible
    • A:  raise mandible
    • N:  mandibular division of trigeminal n.
  101. orbicularis oris m.
    • O/I:  fibers run parallel to the margins of both superior and inferior labia, encircling the mouth
    • A:  closes mouth
    • N:  dorsal and ventral buccal branches of the facial n.
  102. orbicularis oculi m.
    • O/I:  fibers run parallel to the margins of both superior and inferior palpebrae, encircling the palpebral fissure
    • A:  forceful closure of eyes
    • N:  auriculopalpebral branch of facial n. (palpebral n.)
  103. salivary glands recieve parasympathetic innervation from
  104. largest and most rostral branch of V3
    lingual n.
  105. sensory to skin and teeth of lower jaw
    inferior alveolar n.
  106. sensory to mucosa and skin of cheek, ventral to V2
    buccal n.
  107. levator nasolabialis m.
    • O:  maxilla & frontal bone in region of medial canthus of eye
    • I:  margin of superior labium and external naris
    • A:  dilation of nostril, lifting of upper lip
    • N:  auriculopalpebral branch of facial n.
  108. frontalis m.
    • O:  rostral border of scutiform cartilage
    • I:  nasofrontal fascia of forehead
    • A:  pulls scutiform cartilage rostrad
    • N:  auriculopalpebral branch of facial n.
  109. branch from subclavian a.
    vertebral aa
  110. ventral branch ext carotid, runs with XII
    lingual a.
  111. used to check pulse in horses
    facial a.
  112. next ventral branch after lingual a., runs over mandible
    facial a.
  113. venous sinus found in falx cerebri
    dorsal sagittal sinus
  114. 3rd to 4th ventricle
    mesencephalic aqueduct
  115. composed of 4th upper premolar and 1st lower molar in the canine
    carnassial teeth
  116. gap in teeth
  117. white matter connects left & right cerebral hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  118. parts of the ramus of mandible
    • coronoid process
    • condylar process
    • angular process
    • masseteric fossa
  119. air-filled middle ear is within
    tympanic bulla
  120. innervates dorsal oblique m.
    trochlear n.
  121. condylar processes of ramus articulate with
    temporomandibular joint
  122. incisive duct opens here, part of the _______
    • incisive papilla
    • vomeronasal organ
  123. jugular furrow
    • sternocephalicus m.
    • brachiocephalicus m.
  124. Eq - frontal sinus + dorsal conchal sinus
    conchofrontal sinus
  125. tongue attaches to the basihyoid bone via
    lingual process (eq/ox)
  126. contents of guttural pouch
    • internal carotid aa
  127. What 2 structures are contained in the vocal fold
    vocalis m. vocal lig
  128. what structure connects cricoid cartilage with thyroid cartilage
    crocothyroid lig
  129. ligament that attaches cricoid cart to 1st tracheal ring
  130. The ____ is occupied by the pituitary gland
    hypophyseal fossa
  131. tentorium cerebelli modification that attaches to cranial vault
    osseous tentorium
  132. stylohyoid bone attaches to
    mastoid process of skull
  133. CN 1 exits
    cribform plate
  134. CN II
    Optic canal
  135. CN III
    orbital fissure
  136. IV
    orbital fissure
  137. V1
    orbital fissure
  138. V2
    round foramen to rostral alar
  139. V3
    oval foramen
  140. VI
    orbital fissure
  141. VII
    internal acoustic meatus to stylomastoid
  142. VIII
    internal acoustic meatus
  143. IX X XI
    jugular foramen to tympano-occipital fissure
  144. XII
    hypoglossal canal