Wellness

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Author:
SelinaBell
ID:
272411
Filename:
Wellness
Updated:
2014-04-30 00:39:04
Tags:
health
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Description:
Wellness exam review
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  1. Diet plans (lifestyle changes)
    ♦ Decrease calorie intake and increase exercise
  2. Recommended percentage of protein that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult.
    ♦ 15%
  3. Physiological changes during Stage One of the Stress Response
    ♦ Sympathetic nervous system activated

    ♦ Stress hormones released

    ♦ HR, BP increased

    ♦ Muscles tense

    ♦ Pupils dilate
  4. Body composition
    ♦ Fat tissue and lean body tissue

    ♦ Not comprised by total body weight

    ♦ Compromised by excessive body fat

    • Hydrostatic weighing is best way to determine % body fat
    • Skinfold measure
  5. Fats
    ♦ Lipids or oils

    ♦ Energy = 9 kcals/gram fat

    ♦ Recommended intake <30% of total daily calories

    Five types:

    saturated, unsaturated, triglycerides, cholesterol, trans fats
  6. Adipose tissue
    Stores nutrients/vitamins

    major storage form of energy

    support/protect internal organs
  7. Recommended percentage of carbohydrates that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult.
    55%-60%
  8. Calories of fat per pound?
    3500 calories = 1lb of fat
  9. Excessive stress causes?
    • ♦ suppressed immune system:
    •       - more colds, illness, increased risk of infections.

    ♦ hypertension - increased risk of CVD

    ♦ back/neck pain

    ♦ ulcers, asthma, allergies aggravated

    ♦ migraines 

    ♦ emotional disorders

    ♦ eating disorders
  10. Daily amount of energy necessary to keep the body alive
    males: 1700

    females: 1300
  11. Suggested healthy guidelines for weight loss
    • maximum weight loss rate: 
    •    - 1 to 2 pounds per week

    • 1 per week
    •    - 500 calorie deficit per day
    •         exercise only: walking 1.5-2 hours per day or jog 6 miles @ 10 min pace, 1 hour per day
    •    - diet only: eating 2000 cal -> eat 25% less

    • lose 2 pounds per week
    •    - 1000 calories deficit per day
  12. Food group that a person should eat the most servings from on a daily basis
    bread group
  13. Caloric intake by 1000 calories a day, approximately how much fat would you gain in one week
    2 lbs
  14. Obesity is directly associated with…
    Sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise)

    eating too many calories, especially fat calories
  15. Negative energy balance
    caloric intake < energy expenditure

    body weight will decrease
  16. “Fight or flight response” can be best described as…
    instinctive
  17. Best method for “losing” weight if a person is overfat
    combination of healthier diet and exercise
  18. Weight control
    Exercise is important

    balanced diet
  19. Recommended healthy body fat percentage for a college-age male and female
    male - 10%-20%

    female - 15-25%
  20. Approximate percentage of the food’s calories are from fat
    <30%


    ~42% intake currently
  21. Approximate percentage of the food’s calories are from protein
    about 15%
  22. Water soluble vitamin that needs to be ingested daily
    C and B
  23. Two nutrients supply most of the body’s energy during exercise
    ATP and oxygen
  24. Recommended percentage of fat calories that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult
    <30 %
  25. Principle of eating well
    a balanced diet
  26. A good weight loss program should include
    exercise and a balanced diet
  27. What cardiorespiratory improvements will take place as a result of a flexibility program?
    better circulation??
  28. Contraction of a muscle against a movable resistance, during which the muscle shortens and overcomes the resistance
    isotonic/dynamic contractions
  29. Valve located between the atria and ventricle on the left side of the heart
    bicuspid valve
  30. Associated with the development of cancer
    uncontrolled cell growth occurs

    radiation

    chemicals

    drugs

    toxic substances
  31. Recommended length of time per aerobic workbout to improve cardiorespiratory fitness
    20-60 min
  32. Smoking affects the body by….
    • 2x risk of getting CHD
    • sudden death from cardiac arrest
    • risk of developing CVD and stroke
  33. Combination of cholesterol levels and lipoprotein levels suggests the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease
    magic number is 200 cholesterol level

    most than 100 HDL 

    less than 100 LDL
  34. Best way to increase his/her muscular endurance
    less resistance, more reps
  35. Direct energy source used by the skeletal muscles of the body for muscle contraction
    ATP
  36. Must take place in order for a person to increase his/her muscle strength
    more resistance, less reps
  37. Find THR at 70% (Karvonen’s Formula)
    (220-age)-TRHR)*.70)+TRHR)
  38. Exercise program designed to develop cardiovascular endurance should be concerned primarily with…
    cardio
  39. Blood flow through the heart – proper sequence
    superior/inferior vena cava, right atria, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semi lunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atria, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semi lunar valve, aorta
  40. Form of cholesterol in the blood that tends to stick to the artery walls and leads to atherosclerosis
    LDL?

    Thrombus
  41. Heart chamber is the first to receive blood returning to the heart from the lungs
    left atria
  42. Atherosclerosis
    a type of arteriosclerosis

    blockage of fatty deposits in blood vessels ("plaque")

    progressive disease begins in childhood, symptoms appears later in life.
  43. Blood pressure is defined as…
  44. Behaviors that decrease your risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases
    abstinence

    contraceptives
  45. “Health-related fitness”
    cardiorespiratory fitness

    muscular strength

    muscular endurance

    muscular flexibility 

    body composition
  46. What Rx is recommended to improve health?
    dont smoke

    eat a healthy, balanced diet

    be physically active

    reduce stress level

    lower blood pressure
  47. Flexibility - define
    the range of motion of a joint
  48. Ballistic stretching
    is bad. 

    rapid, forceful, bounceful movements

    more likely to cause injury
  49. What happens to Mitochondria as a result of regular aerobic exercise
    produces ATP and CO using O2 and nutrients
  50. Leading cause of death in the US
    cardiovascular disease
  51. Skill-related aspect of physical fitness
  52. Ways to reduce your risk of developing cancer
    regular exercise

    less exposure to UV light

    exposure to viruses

    tobacco use

    alcohol use

    diet
  53. Coronary risk factors
    smoking

    hypertension

    high blood cholesterol

    physical inactivity

    diabetes mellitus

    obesity and overweight

    heredity

    gender

    age

    stress

    alcohol consumption
  54. Body composition vs. body weight
    body composition is not comprised of total body weight.

    composition: fat tissue and lean body tissue
  55. Can exercise be used a spot reducer?
    noooo
  56. Distress & Eustress
    distress: negative stress, performance declines

    eustress: positive stress, performance improves
  57. Does exercise suppress appetite?
    No...? Water does. But it does not make you eat more either. You should eat the same.
  58. Do you need stress in your life?
    Yes. mild to moderate. 

    Motivation to be productive
  59. H20
    most abundant nutrient in the body

    functions in food digestion, fluid for body, body temperature, waste removal, prevent dehydration

    we need 6-10 cups per day.
  60. A good weight loss program should encourage…
    diet and exercise
  61. Do sugar and alcohol provide essential nutrients?
    no...
  62. How successfully a person copes with a stressful event is determined more by…
    the stressor. Any even that produces a stress response.

     Its the reaction not the event

    acute, cumulative, chronic
  63. Slow twitch fibers vs. fast twitch fibers
    Slow: endurance fibers, oxidative. weak fiber. resistant to fatigue. Make ATP aerobically, contract slowly.

    Fast: red. Contract rapidly, strongest fiber, can "bulk up" with training, make ATP anaerobically, good for short durations, generates strong forces
  64. The muscle fiber type used predominantly during long duration exercise
    slow
  65. Characteristics of Fad Diets
    Magic or miracle foods

    bizarre quantities (only one food or one type)

    Rigid menus

    specific food combinations

    special foods that must be purchased 

    rapid weight loss >2lbs per week

    No health warnings

    no increased physical activity

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