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Diet plans (lifestyle changes)
♦ Decrease calorie intake and increase exercise
Recommended percentage of protein that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult.
Physiological changes during Stage One of the Stress Response
♦ Sympathetic nervous system activated
♦ Stress hormones released
♦ HR, BP increased
♦ Muscles tense
♦ Pupils dilate
♦ Fat tissue and lean body tissue
♦ Not comprised by total body weight
♦ Compromised by excessive body fat
- Hydrostatic weighing is best way to determine % body fat
- Skinfold measure
♦ Lipids or oils
♦ Energy = 9 kcals/gram fat
♦ Recommended intake <30% of total daily calories
saturated, unsaturated, triglycerides, cholesterol, trans fats
major storage form of energy
support/protect internal organs
Recommended percentage of carbohydrates that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult.
Calories of fat per pound?
3500 calories = 1lb of fat
Excessive stress causes?
- ♦ suppressed immune system:
- - more colds, illness, increased risk of infections.
♦ hypertension - increased risk of CVD
♦ back/neck pain
♦ ulcers, asthma, allergies aggravated
♦ emotional disorders
♦ eating disorders
Daily amount of energy necessary to keep the body alive
Suggested healthy guidelines for weight loss
- maximum weight loss rate:
- - 1 to 2 pounds per week
- 1 per week
- - 500 calorie deficit per day
- exercise only: walking 1.5-2 hours per day or jog 6 miles @ 10 min pace, 1 hour per day
- - diet only: eating 2000 cal -> eat 25% less
- lose 2 pounds per week
- - 1000 calories deficit per day
Food group that a person should eat the most servings from on a daily basis
Caloric intake by 1000 calories a day, approximately how much fat would you gain in one week
Obesity is directly associated with…
Sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise)
eating too many calories, especially fat calories
Negative energy balance
caloric intake < energy expenditure
body weight will decrease
“Fight or flight response” can be best described as…
Best method for “losing” weight if a person is overfat
combination of healthier diet and exercise
Exercise is important
Recommended healthy body fat percentage for a college-age male and female
male - 10%-20%
female - 15-25%
Approximate percentage of the food’s calories are from fat
~42% intake currently
Approximate percentage of the food’s calories are from protein
Water soluble vitamin that needs to be ingested daily
C and B
Two nutrients supply most of the body’s energy during exercise
ATP and oxygen
Recommended percentage of fat calories that should come from the total daily calories for average US adult
A good weight loss program should include
exercise and a balanced diet
What cardiorespiratory improvements will take place as a result of a flexibility program?
Contraction of a muscle against a movable resistance, during which the muscle shortens and overcomes the resistance
Valve located between the atria and ventricle on the left side of the heart
Associated with the development of cancer
uncontrolled cell growth occurs
Recommended length of time per aerobic workbout to improve cardiorespiratory fitness
Smoking affects the body by….
- 2x risk of getting CHD
- sudden death from cardiac arrest
- risk of developing CVD and stroke
Combination of cholesterol levels and lipoprotein levels suggests the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease
magic number is 200 cholesterol level
most than 100 HDL
less than 100 LDL
Best way to increase his/her muscular endurance
less resistance, more reps
Direct energy source used by the skeletal muscles of the body for muscle contraction
Must take place in order for a person to increase his/her muscle strength
more resistance, less reps
Find THR at 70% (Karvonen’s Formula)
Exercise program designed to develop cardiovascular endurance should be concerned primarily with…
Blood flow through the heart – proper sequence
superior/inferior vena cava, right atria, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semi lunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atria, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semi lunar valve, aorta
Form of cholesterol in the blood that tends to stick to the artery walls and leads to atherosclerosis
Heart chamber is the first to receive blood returning to the heart from the lungs
a type of arteriosclerosis
blockage of fatty deposits in blood vessels ("plaque")
progressive disease begins in childhood, symptoms appears later in life.
Blood pressure is defined as…
Behaviors that decrease your risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases
What Rx is recommended to improve health?
eat a healthy, balanced diet
be physically active
reduce stress level
lower blood pressure
Flexibility - define
the range of motion of a joint
rapid, forceful, bounceful movements
more likely to cause injury
What happens to Mitochondria as a result of regular aerobic exercise
produces ATP and CO using O2 and nutrients
Leading cause of death in the US
Skill-related aspect of physical fitness
Ways to reduce your risk of developing cancer
less exposure to UV light
exposure to viruses
Coronary risk factors
high blood cholesterol
obesity and overweight
Body composition vs. body weight
body composition is not comprised of total body weight.
composition: fat tissue and lean body tissue
Can exercise be used a spot reducer?
Distress & Eustress
distress: negative stress, performance declines
eustress: positive stress, performance improves
Does exercise suppress appetite?
No...? Water does. But it does not make you eat more either. You should eat the same.
Do you need stress in your life?
Yes. mild to moderate.
Motivation to be productive
most abundant nutrient in the body
functions in food digestion, fluid for body, body temperature, waste removal, prevent dehydration
we need 6-10 cups per day.
A good weight loss program should encourage…
diet and exercise
Do sugar and alcohol provide essential nutrients?
How successfully a person copes with a stressful event is determined more by…
the stressor. Any even that produces a stress response.
Its the reaction not the event
acute, cumulative, chronic
Slow twitch fibers vs. fast twitch fibers
Slow: endurance fibers, oxidative. weak fiber. resistant to fatigue. Make ATP aerobically, contract slowly.
Fast: red. Contract rapidly, strongest fiber, can "bulk up" with training, make ATP anaerobically, good for short durations, generates strong forces
The muscle fiber type used predominantly during long duration exercise
Characteristics of Fad Diets
Magic or miracle foods
bizarre quantities (only one food or one type)
specific food combinations
special foods that must be purchased
rapid weight loss >2lbs per week
No health warnings
no increased physical activity
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