Comm 100 Chapter 4 Vocab: Spoken Language

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madrat
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Comm 100 Chapter 4 Vocab: Spoken Language
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2014-04-29 15:41:39
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comm100 sp100 communication speech vocab
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Comm 100
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Chapter 4 Vocab from Thinking Through Communication by Trenholm
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  1. language
    rule-governed symbol system that allows its users to generate meaning and, in the process, to define reality
  2. sign
    the vehicle for the expression of language
  3. symbol
    a sign that is arbitrary and conventional
  4. linguistic productivity
    • the ability to understand and create unusual sentences
    • it shows that language learning is more that a matter of trial and error
  5. Sapir-Worf hypothesis
    the nature of our language affects the nature of our thought
  6. linguistic determinism
    the theory that language determines thought
  7. neologism
    new words that are in the process of entering the language
  8. dialect
    when a subgroup speaking the same language using a different vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation from others who speak that language.
  9. pidgin
    • no native speakers.
    • simple language deliberately invented to that people new to the area can communicate with those who live in the area.
  10. creole
    when pidgin language becomes permanent
  11. Lingua Francas
    when people from different language communities choose one language to use for trade and commerce
  12. jargon
    the special or technical words used by members of professions.
  13. argot
    refers to words whose meanings have been changes to that outsiders cannot understand them.
  14. taboo
    words that are unacceptable in polite society
  15. reappropriation
    old words take new meaning
  16. phonology
    the study of the significant sound patterns of a language
  17. phonemes
    the significant sounds in a language
  18. morphemes
    • smallest unit of meaning
    • prefixes and suffixes
  19. free morpheme
    • a morpheme that can stand alone as a word
    • ex I, boy, girl
  20. syntax
    sentence structure
  21. pragmatics
    the study of how we use language in social contexts
  22. speech act
    the goal the speaker intends to accomplish though speech
  23. Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) theory
    provides a framework of understanding how individuals use context to assign pragmatic meaning
  24. episode
    a sequence of communicative behaviors that exist as a unit with a beginning, middle, and end
  25. relationship
    all of the episodes that can reasonably be expected to occur between self and other, given reciprocal roles
  26. life script
    a person's ideas about the kind of communication that matches his or her personal identity
  27. cultural pattern
    general agreements shared by members of a particular cultural group about how to act in and respond to the world
  28. discourse
    a unit of language larger than a single sentence
  29. conversation
    most common mode of spoken communication
  30. cooperative principle
    for talk to work, communicators must be willing to cooperate with one another by speaking in socially approved ways
  31. conversational maxisms
    four rules: quantity maxim, quality maxim, relevancy maxim, and manner maxim
  32. trouble talk
    talking about problems
  33. rapport talk
    • focuses on relational meanings
    • it is most appropriate for interpersonal topics and feels most natural in intimate contexts
  34. report talk
    • focuses on context
    • it is more appropriate in public situations when discussion making or opinion exchange is expected
  35. hall of mirrors effect
    in the course of being cited, discussed, and popularized over time, originally modest claims have been progressively represented as more and more absolute, while hypotheses have been given that status of fact
  36. female register
    • using tag questions such as "right?" at the end of sentences
    • qualifiers such as "maybe"
    • disclaimers such as "don't get me wrong,"
    • Women are criticized for being passive and powerless
  37. performative aspects of language
    viewing differences between ourselves and others as "social performances" rather than characteristics.
  38. ambiguous language
    language that can be interpreted in more than one way
  39. equivocal communication
    another term for ambiguous communication
  40. immediate language
    personalized language that involves the audience.
  41. abstraction
    breaking a concept down into broader terms

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