Nervous System

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Nervous System
2014-04-29 15:55:25
biology nervoussystem genbio science
science,biology,the nervous system
The nervous system for Gen bio (college students)
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  1. CNS
    • the site of integration
    • composed of the brain and the spinal cord
  2. CNS axon's are covered with
    Olgiodendrytes that are made up of glia cells
  3. Astrocytes
    form the blood brain barrier
  4. The CNS is mostly made of
    cell bodies and interneurons
  5. PNS axons are covered with
    Schwann cells that are made up glia cells
  6. The simples nervous system is found in
    Hyrdas and is a nerve net
  7. What is beneficial of a nerve net? What is a disadvantage?
    • It allows the information from mutilple sources to be integrated. 
    • You are not aware of the exact location the stimuli came from.
  8. Microglia
    • are immune cells that protect against pathogens and
    • found only in the CNS
  9. The CNS is formed by
    Dorsal hallow nerve cord and the neural tube
  10. PNS
    • composed of neuron axons
    • everything except for the brain and the spinal cord
    • makes use of afferent and efferent nerve pathways or cells
    • during reproductivity the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons work together
  11. Ependymal cells
    • line the ventricles of the brain
    • has cerebral spinal fluid
  12. Afferent pathway
    • the information goes TO THE BRAIN
    • 1. stimuli
    • 2. sensory neuron
    • 3. afferent neuron
    • 4. PNS
  13. Efferent pathway
    • the information goes EXITS FROM THE BRAIN
    • has 2 possible pathways
    • 1. autonomic system
    • 2. parasympathetic, sympathetic or enteric
    • OR
    • 1. motor system
    • 2. skeletal system
  14. Parasympathetic
    • rest and digest
    • acetlycholine
  15. Sympathetic
    • fight or flight
    • epinephrine
  16. Enteric
    Controls the digestive and excretory organs like the pancreas, gall bladder and the GI tract
  17. Radial glia
    forms the tracks int he embryonic stage for neurons to travel
  18. the Brain
    • composed of white and gray matter
    • makes cerebrospinal fluid
  19. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • gives hormones and nutrients to the brain while carrying away wastes
    • made by filtration of the arterial blood
  20. White and Gray matter
    • white matter=inside brain and outside spinal cord. also is made up of axons
    • gray matter= inside spinal cord and outside brain also is made up of cell bodies
  21. Spinal cord
    • has gray matter inside and white matter outside
    • the site for reflex integration
  22. Neuronal dogma
    • sensory neuron (afferent) (PNS)
    • interneuron (brain) (CNS)
    • motor neuron (efferent) (PNS)
  23. Regions of the brain
    • forebrain
    • midbrain
    • hindbrain
  24. Forebrain
    • largest in mammals
    • learning, memory an emotion
    • telencephalon=the CEREBRUM
    • diencephalon= the hypothalamus, thalamus and pineal gland
    • olfactory bulb
  25. Midbrain
    • integrates sensory input
    • mesencephalon forms the midbrain (part of the brain stem)
  26. Hindbrain
    • controls involuntary activities
    • metencephalon= pons (part of brainstem), CEREBELLUM
    • mylencephalon= medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)
  27. Cerebrum
    • controls skeletal muscle contraction
    • planning, emotion, memory, perception, learning, 
    • the outer layer is called the cerebral cortex
    • divided into left and right hemispheres
    • the corpus callosum allows the right and left hemispheres to communicate
  28. Cerebellum
    • coordinates movement and balance and the memory of motor skills
    • also receives info from the auditory and visual systems
    • hand eye coordination
  29. Thalamus
    center for sensory information going to the cerebrum
  30. Brainstem
    • midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
    • coordinates periphery vision reflex
    • function of the pons and medulla transfers information between the PNS and the mid and forebrains
  31. Medulla
    • controls automatic, homeostatic activities 
    • ex. breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, vomiting, digestion
  32. Reticular formation
    • controls arousal and sleep by controlling REM cycles 
    • it also functions in filtering sensory input (perhaps works in sensory adaptation)
  33. Sleep and arousal
    controlled by the brainstem and cerebrum
  34. Limbic system
    • controls emotion
    • consists of the hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, olfactory bulb
  35. Amygdala
    functions in emotional memory
  36. The cerebral cortex consists of the
    • frontal lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • temporal lobe
  37. Frontal lobe
    • learning, decision making, planning, motor control 
    • Broca's area (speech)
    • olfactory bulb
  38. Parietal lobe
    • somatosensory (touch)
    • integration of touch information
  39. Occipital lobe
    • vision 
    • object recognition, merging objects, pattern recognition
  40. Temporal lobe
    • hearing
    • Wernicke's area (hearing)
  41. Lateralization
    • the differences in hemisphere function
    • for example, the left hemisphere is more adept at logical thinking, while the right more adept at creative thinking