Biology Unit 3: The Respiratory System

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elisandthewhale
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Biology Unit 3: The Respiratory System
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2014-04-29 17:41:45
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  1. What is the basic function of the respiratory system? What is this process known as?
    The basic function of the respiratory system is to make sure that oxygen can enter ever cell in the body and that carbon dioxide can leave every cell in the body. This process is known as gas exchange.
  2. Every respiratory system shares two basic requirements. What are they?
    • 1) The surface area available for respiration must be large enough for the exchange of O2 and CO2 to occur at a rate that will meet the organisms metabolic needs.
    • 2) Respiration must take place in a moist environment so that O2 and CO2 are dissolved.
  3. Define breathing.
    The act of ventilating a respiratory surface with air. This can be further divided into inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out).
  4. Define external respiration.
    The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the air and blood (at the level of the lungs).
  5. Define internal respiration.
    The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the blood and the cells of the surrounding tissue (at the level of the cell).
  6. Define cellular respiration.
    Complex series of chemical reactions that take place mainly in the mitochondria of every cell.
  7. What is the respiratory system that is characteristic of all vertebrates?
    The lung arrangement.
  8. The mammalian respiratory system is divided into 2 main tracts:
    • 1) The Upper Respiratory Tract
    • 2) The Lower Respiratory Tract
  9. The upper respiratory tract consists of 1 main tube that is divided into 4 parts. What are the 4 parts?
    1) nasal passages; 2) pharynx; 3) larynx; 4) trachea
  10. Air first enters the ______ where it is then conducted into the _____ ________.
    nostrils, nasal cavity.
  11. Three things happen to the air in the nasal passages- what are they?
    Air is warmed, moistened, and filtered.
  12. From the nasal passages, air enters the ______.
    pharynx.
  13. What is the pharynx?
    A common tube for both food and air. It eventually branches into the layrnx/trachea (carries air) and the esophagus (carries food).
  14. Below the pharynx, air will pass into the _____.
    larynx.
  15. What is another name for the larynx?
    The voicebox, because it contains our vocal chords.
  16. What is the opening of the larynx protected by? What does it do?
    A small, flap-like structure called the epiglottis. It helps prevent food from entering the larynx/trachea.
  17. During swallowing, the epiglottis does what? Why?
    It closes and covers the entrance to the larynx/trachea. As a result, food cannot enter the larynx or trachea.
  18. After the larynx, air makes its way into the _____.
    trachea.
  19. What is the trachea commonly called?
    The windpipe.
  20. Where is the trachea located?
    In front of the esophagus.
  21. What is the trachea?
    The passageway that conducts are into the lungs.
  22. What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?
    Everything following the branching of the trachea.
  23. The trachea branches into two smaller passageways called what?
    Bronchi. One bronchus enters each lung.
  24. What is each lung divided into? The right lung has how many? The left?
    Lobes. Right has 3 lobes, left has 2.
  25. In the lung, each bronchus divides many times to produce a network of finer and finer tubes called _______.
    bronchioles.
  26. What is the grape-like cluster of tiny sacs at the end of each bronchiole called?
    alveoli.
  27. Where does gas exchange occur?
    At the alveoli.
  28. Why are the alveoli perfect structures to allow for gas exchange to occur?
    Because they are very thin; only 1 cell thick. The fact that they are so thin makes it easy for O2 and CO2 to diffuse through the surface of the alveoli.
  29. What kind of an inner surface does alveoli have? What does this surface allow for?
    Alveoli have a moist inner surface. This allows the O2 and CO2 to be dissolved.
  30. Alveoli provide a _____ _________ _____ for gas exchange.
    huge surface area
  31. How many alveoli does a normal human lung contain?
    150 million
  32. What are alveoli covered with?
    Tiny blood vessels called capillaries.
  33. What do capillaries allow for?
    Dissolved O2 to  pass from the alveoli to the blood and dissolved CO2 to pass from the blood to the alveoli.
  34. What are the alveoli the site of?
    External respiration
  35. What is the path of O2 in gas exchange?
    After inhalation, the concentration of O2 in the alveoli is higher than the concentration of O2 in the capillaries. O2 will diffuse from the alveoli to the blood. This is external respiration. The oxygenated blood from the lungs eventually makes its way to the body's cells. The concentration of O2 in the blood is higher than the concentration of O2 in the body's cells. O2 will diffuse from the blood to the cells. This is internal respiration.
  36. What is the path of CO2 in as exchange?
    After inhalation, the concentration of CO2 in the body's cells is higher than the concentration of CO2 in the blood. CO2 will diffuse from the cells to the blood. This is internal respiration. This deoxygenated blood from the cells eventually makes its way to the lungs. The concentration of CO2 in the blood is higher than the concentration of CO2 in the alveoli. CO2 will diffuse from the blood to the alveoli and out of the body with the next exhalation. This is external respiration.
  37. Basically, what are the paths of O2 and CO2 in gas exchange?
    O2 will diffuse from the alveoli into the blood, then from the blood into the cells of the body. CO2 will diffuse from the cells of the body into the blood, then from the blood into the alveoli.
  38. Air always flows from...
    Regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.
  39. When we breathe, we use 2 muscular structures to control air pressure within the lungs. What are they?
    • 1) Intercostal muscles
    • 2) Diaphragm
  40. Define intercostal muscles.
    Muscles associated with our ribs.
  41. Define diaphragm.
    A muscle layer that separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity.
  42. What happens during inhalation?
    Intercostal muscles contract, lifting the ribcage up and out. At the same time, the diaphragm contracts and pulls down. This increases the size of the chest cavity, causing the lungs to expand. As a result of this expansion, the air pressure within the lungs is lower than the air pressure in the external environment. Air enters the lungs via the trachea, moving from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.
  43. What happens during exhalation?
    The diaphragm relaxes, returning to a dome-shaped curve. The intercostal muscles also relax, which causes the ribcage to be pulled in and down. This decreases the size of the chest cavity, causing he lungs to shrink. As a result of the shrinking, the air pressure within the lungs is higher than the air pressure in the external environment. Air exits the lungs and moves out through the trachea, moving from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.
  44. Define tidal volume.
    Volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal breath.
  45. Define inspiratory reserve volume.
    Additional volume of air that is inhaled beyond a normal tidal inhalation.
  46. Define expiratory reserve volume.
    Additional volume of air that is exhaled beyond a normal tidal exhalation.
  47. Define vital capacity.
    Tidal volume of gases that can move in and out of the lungs.
  48. What is the formula for vital capacity?
    VC = TV + IRV + ERV
  49. Define residual volume.
    The amount of air that remains in the lungs after a max. exhalation. This air never leaves the respiratory system because if it did, the lungs would collapse.
  50. What is respiratory efficiency?
    The rate at which O2 can be transferred from the lungs to the blood for transport to the rest of the body. This will increase as physical fitness improves.

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