bio 214 chapter 8 + notes & slides

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  1. examples of housekeeping proteins
    • chromosome structural
    • RNA polymerase
    • DNA repair enzymes
    • ribosomal
    • cytoskeleton
  2. 6 steps of regulating gene expression from DNA to RNA to Protein
    • 1. frequency of gene transcription
    • 2. RNA transcription & splicing
    • 3. exportation of mRNAs from nucleus to cytosol
    • 4. degrading of nRNA molecules
    • 5. translation of mRNAs to proteins
    • 6. destruction of proteins
  3. sequence that turns gene off or on, determines how often gene is transcribed
    regulatory DNA sequences
  4. regulator that binds to regulatory DNA sequence
    transcription regulators
  5. clustered genes on chromosome transcribed from single promoter=on long mRNA molecule
  6. blocks RNA polymerase from binding to DNA
    tryptophan repressor, only binds if several tryptophans are bound to DNA
  7. repressor that in active form represses genes
    transcriptional repressor proteins
  8. a protein that helps enhance rate of transcription
    transcriptional activator protein
  9. proteins that aid the assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase to form large transcription complex at promoter
    mediator protein complex
  10. chromatin-modifying proteins that promotes attachment of acetyl groups to lysine in histone tail proteins
    histone acetyltransferases
  11. enzymes that remove acetyl groups from histone tails
    histone deactylases
  12. the way groups of transcription regulators determine expression of a single gene
    combinatorial control
  13. means by which eukaryotic cells diversify into particular types of cells during embryonic development
    combinatorial control
  14. cells that are capable of giving rise to all specialized cell types in the body
    pluripotent stem cells
  15. cells that look and behave like pluripotent ES cells that are derived rom embryos
    induce pluripotent stem cells (iPS)
  16. transcription regulator that trigger the formation of a whole organ
    "master" transcription regulator Ey
  17. cells that once differentiated will never divide again
    • terminally differentiated
    • skeletal muscle
    • neurons
  18. patterns of gene expression responsible for identity remembered and passed on through all subsequent cell divisions
    cell memory
  19. master transcription regulator activates transcription of its own gene every time cell is divided
    positive feedback loop
  20. covalent modification that turns off genes by attracting proteins that bind and block gene transcription
    DNA methylation
  21. cell-memory mechanisms transmit patterns of gene expression from parent to daughter w/o altering nucleotide sequence of DNA
    epigenetic inheritance
  22. what allows differentiated cells to maintain their identity?
    epigenetic mechanisms
  23. 4 epigenetic mechanisms
    • cell memory
    • positive feedback loop
    • DNA methylation
    • histone modification
  24. post-transcriptional controls for mRNA
    • untranslated regions
    • repressors bind to AUG
  25. noncoding RNAs
    regulatory RNAs
  26. 3 types of regulatory RNA's
    • microRNAs
    • small interfering RNAs
    • long noncoding RNAs
  27. regulatory RNA that reduces mRNA stability and translation into protein
  28. specialized protein miRNA and RNAi is packaged with
    RNA-induced silencing complex(RISC)
  29. regulatory RNA that eliminates "foreign" RNA molecules
    RNA interference (RNAi)
  30. nucleoside+phosphate=
  31. small nucleotides
  32. large nucleotides
  33. direction of transcription and replication
    5' to 3'
  34. what type of bond joins the 5' and 3'
  35. which nucleotide pair requires more energy to separate?
  36. what splits for replication
  37. what gets copied for DNA replication
  38. attachment site for mitotic spindal
    stays attached during replication
  39. where is telomers and centromers located on chromatin?
  40. whats a heavy nucleotide
  41. enzyme that relieves tension during DNA replication
  42. enzyme that unravels DNA at replication fork
  43. what binds to DNA to prevent rebinding
    single stranded binding proteins(SSBP)
  44. what suppresses binding on DNA
  45. the three steps in transcription
    • initiation
    • elongation
    • termination
  46. 1 gene->1 enzyme=
    1 polypeptide
  47. proteins + ribosomal RNA=
  48. the 3 caveats to one gene=one protein
    what experiment concluded this
    • 1. alternative splicing
    • 2. gene may not code for mRNA
    • 3. modifications to protein change function
    • Beadle and Tatum
  49. location of mRNA synthesis
  50. location of protein synthesis
  51. what stores, transmits, and helps express hereditary information?
    nucleic acids
  52. what is the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide programmed by?
    unit of inheritance called gene
  53. nucleic acid monomers
  54. what are genes made of
    DNA, nucleic acid monomers, nucleotides
  55. what else can RNA be coded for?
    • ribosomal
    • transfer RNAs
    • ncRNA
    • miRNA
    • siRNA
  56. 3 parts of nucleotide
    • nitrogen base (C-N ring)
    • pentose sugar (5C)
    • PO4 group
  57. what do nitrogenous bases hang off of
    sugar-phosphate backbone
  58. how do nucleotides become polynucleotides?
    dehydration synthesis
  59. basic structural unit of a chromosome, what is it composed of
    *beads on a string
    • nucleosome
    • DNA & protein
  60. is there more DNA or protein in chromosomes?
  61. 3 important parts of a chromosome in the interphase
    • telomere
    • replication origin
    • centromere
  62. important part of a chromosome during M phase
    mitotic spindles
  63. process of cell division
    • interphase: gene expression & chromosome duplication
    • M Phase: mitosis, mitotic spindle
    • Cell division
  64. what digests linker DNA
  65. what attracts heterochromatin-specific proteins, including histone-modifying enzymes
    histone modifications
  66. heterochromatin spreads until it encounters
    a barrier DNA sequence
  67. non overlapping group of nucleotides
  68. 1 codon =
    3 nucleotides=1 amino acid
  69. 2 sections on DNA responsible for starting and stopping
    • promoter
    • terminator
  70. parts involved in transcriptional initiation
    • RNA polymerase->promoter
    • DNA strands separate
    • RNA synthesis begins, ribonucleotides complementary to template strand are linked
  71. parts involved in transcriptional elongation
    • RNA polymerase moves down DNA
    • unwinds small window of DNA
    • nucleotides are added to growing RNA chain
  72. Parts in Transcriptional termination
    • RNA polymerase reaches terminator
    • RNA & RNA polymerase are released from DNA
  73. place on promoter site transcription factors attach to
    TATA box
  74. what stabilizes new RNA strands and why
    • cap & poly a tail
    • RNAases will chew it up otherwise
  75. 5 players in translation
    • mRNA
    • RIbosome
    • tRNA
    • amino acides
    • aminoacyl tRNA sythetases
  76. what attaches amino acids to tRNAs
    aminoacyl tRNA synthetases
  77. how many possible amino acids?
  78. strand that is used to copy coding strand
  79. the 3 parts to translation
    • Initiation
    • Elongation cycle
    • termination
  80. step for translation initiation
    delivery of ribosome with first tRNA to start codon
  81. 3 parts of translation elongation cycle
    • delivery of tRNA to A site
    • transpeptidase activity
    • translocation
  82. steps for translation termination
    • ribosome reaches stop codon
    • release factor bind to A site
    • triggers release of polypeptide
    • ribosome releases tRNA and mRNA
  83. amino acids on tRNA in P site cleaved from tRNA and attached to amino acid on tRNA in A site
    Transpeptidase activity of the translation elongation cycle
  84. ribosome ratchets over codon
    tRNA in A site moves to P site
    uncharged tRNA in P site exits the ribosome through the E site
    translocation of the translation elongation cycle
  85. RNA adaptor molecules
  86. RNA that's part of ribsome
  87. RNA that's part of splicosome
  88. RNA that's part of SRP
  89. RNA that eukaryotic gene regulation
  90. RNA responsible for genetic code
  91. 4 steps in damaged DNA excision repair
    • thymine dimer
    • nuclease
    • DNA polymerase
    • ligase
  92. players on lagging DNA strand
    • primase
    • DNA polymerase I
    • Ligase
    • Okazaki Fragments
  93. player on DNA leading strand
    DNA polymerase III
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bio 214 chapter 8 + notes & slides
chapter 8
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