awareness that one is singled out by others based on an attribute that is negatively stereotyped
What is stigma controllability?
who caused or is responsible for the stigmatizing attribute, status, or condition or to what extent it could have been prevented
What is the just world theory?
we have a general need to see the world, and the people and events in it, as reasonable, orderly, and just
What is stigma visibility?
how apparent it is to others and how difficult it is to conceal from others
What is the master status attribute?
all of a stigmatized person's other abilities and qualities become subordinate to and colored by their stigma
What is stigma management?
individual strategies for coping with social stigma
What is withdrawal?
removing oneself from populations of people associated with a non-stigmatized group and rather associate with group stigmatized like you
What is passing?
methods and strategies for concealing one's stigmatizing attribute or condition from others
What is self-promotion?
demonstrating to other people that you, as a stigmatized person, are multidimensional and competent in several domains
What is compensation?
stigmatized people deliberately presenting to others behavior that contradicts the assumptions held about their abilities or character
What is covering?
efforts to minimize the impact of one's stigmatizing attribute on social interactions
What are the social consequences of stigma?
negative emotions provoked by stigmatized people: tension, uncertainty, or disliking
emotions experienced between stigmatized and non-stigmatized people: tension, awkwardness, and hostility
more anxiety experienced with disabled rather than non-disabled partners
How does perceived controllability affect stigma?
those with stigmas that are perceived to be more controllable are treated more negatively (blame and anger) than those without controllable stigmas (provide help or support)
How is visibility associated with stigma?
those with invisible marks (being gay, paroled convict) may avoid stigma compared with those who have visible marks (physical disability, obesity, racial minority) that experience stigma
How does peril affect stigma?
the more perceived contagiousness of the stigma leads to more fear and disgust of the stigmatized person leading to more avoidance and exclusion of that person
How is stigma related to self-concept?
when a discrepancy exists between who you believe yourself to be (self-concept) and who society perceives you to be (virtual identity)
How can stigma be reduced?
bringing the virtual identity in line with their actual self-views (self-concepts reflecting more positive views held about them by others)
align the actual identity with the virtual identity (internalizing and fulfilling others' beliefs about them)
How is stigma related to self-esteem?
stigmatized people are aware of other people's views of them and through internalizing their beliefs (over time) their levels of self-esteem decrease (lowered beliefs in competence and ability to manipulate their own environments)
Are there positive consequences of stigma?
positive consequences: sympathy, pity, and offers of help
negative consequences: receiving the positive notions resulting from stigma can lead to stigmatized individuals feeling inadequate or incompetent (positive may not necessarily be positive)
What are the strategies for gaining social acceptance?
withdrawal and passing
What is exploiting stigma?
self-promotion: proactively changing one's virtual identity; allowing others to see and evaluate one's competencies in spite of the hindrances and disadvantages of being stigmatized
What are the strategies for protecting psychological well-being?
attributing negative outcomes to prejudice, devaluing negative outcomes, and making in-group comparisons
How do you attribute negative outcomes to prejudice?
by associating the prejudiced actions of others to their prejudice beliefs and not to your own inadequacy or incompetence
How do you devalue negative outcomes?
when receiving criticism in an area that is not important to you, it doesn't hurt as much (devaluing the areas in which stigmatized individuals or members of their group receive negative outcomes)
How do you make in-group comparisons?
comparing one's outcomes and opportunities with those of similar others, such as members of one's stigmatized group, are likely to be less threatening and perhaps even beneficial
In what ways do you seek social support?
either through instrumental support (discovering how others were treated in similar situations or performed in similar situations) or social support (talking to someone about the treatment or performance in situations and receiving emotional support in the matters)