Ch. 12 Responding to social inequality: behavioral and cognitive interventions for reducing prejudic
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What is social inequality?
- comparatively speaking, it occurs when people from social groups have vastly worse life outcomes than people from other groups
- in absolute terms, it occurs when the members of a group do not have some minimum amount of opportunity and resources to make a decent life
What is the contact hypothesis?
physical contact with a member of a negatively stereotyped group lessens the negative beliefs and feelings we hold about that individual and improves our attitudes and feeling toward the group as a whole
What is the imagined intergroup contact?
occurs when people mentally simulate contact, ideally imagining a real-life, positive experience, with someone from another social group or category
What is stereotype inhibition?
deliberate monitoring and suppressing of expressing one's automatic prejudices
What is stereotype substitution?
replacing negative beliefs about a minority group with more positive associations
What is cross-categorization?
the realization that you share a group membership with people from a disliked out-group
What is cognitive empathy?
perspective taking or the act of imagining the circumstances and perspective of someone else
What is emotional empathy?
trying to share another's feelings or responding emotionally to the plight or circumstances of another person
What is stereotype rebound?
having previously suppressed their stereotypes are now significantly more prejudiced and stereotypical when not asked to suppress their stereotypes
What are the barriers to addressing social inequality?
people oversimplify social worlds, preferring us to them; people prefer to have their preexisting social beliefs confirmed and supported rather than challenged; people rely on prejudice and discrimination to meet basic needs for self-integrity and security; and people's well-learned and automatic prejudices often overrule their intentions to be fair-minded
What are the behavioral interventions to reducing prejudice?
personal contact with members of negatively stereotyped groups and self regulating one's own prejudiced behavior
How does personal contact help decrease prejudice?
contact with out-group members help break down stereotypes and prejudicial feelings of uncertainty, fear, or judgment that we often harbor about out-group members
What are the components of effective personal contact?
- personal interaction should ideally be with an out-group member of equal status, someone who has a similar set of life circumstances as yourself
- sustained personal interaction with an out-group member reduces negative beliefs when that interaction is cooperative, when you and the other person are interested in and working toward a common goal
- although equal-status and cooperative contact are sufficient to reduce stereotypes about an individual from a disliked group, that goodwill does not generalize to the whole group unless the individual is seen as representative of the group
How does indirect contact help decrease prejudice?
When you think about how those who are prejudiced are treated and picturing a positive interaction with a member of the prejudiced group
How does contact reduce prejudice?
The more we learn and interact with those who have prejudices against them we learn how inaccurate those prejudices are or can be
What is self-regulation?
controlling/regulating for when you have prejudicial thoughts as to prevent them from being heard or acknowledged (this can be accomplished through feelings of guilt and embarrassment from such thoughts) these feelings can motivate us to change our thoughts
How do you integrate contact and self-regulation?
The more contact between groups the more we are able to catch our prejudicial thoughts and over time change them into more appropriate and accurate thoughts of out groups
What are the cognitive interventions to reduce prejudice?
inhibiting and substituting stereotypes
What is the relationship between cross-categorization and contact hypothesis?
When we interact with members of an out-group who also share interests or backgrounds of the in-group the contact between the two members helps decrease or challenge prejudices you hold toward that group
What are the relationships between empathy and prejudice?
through empathizing and imagining how those who are prejudiced experience life and various situations they can begin to realize that the original thoughts that created the prejudices may not be as accurate as they once thought and thus have to pursue other reasons that aren't as prejudicial
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