Pain

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
272448
Filename:
Pain
Updated:
2014-04-29 20:30:08
Tags:
pain
Folders:
pain
Description:
Pain
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. what is nociception?
    • -Nocioception is the process of transduction ,
    • transmission, perception and modulation of pain

    • -Nocioception is similar for individuals,
    • however the circle surrounding which is pain experience, pain behavior &
    • system response are highly variable

    • -Different
    • people react differently to the same intensity of painful stimuli. Personality
    • & ethnic origin are thought to affect the perception of pain and the
    • resulting pain behavior
  2. pain threshold
    • pain threshold: the point where a stimulus is perceived as painful.  Pain
    • threshold is fairly uniform from one person to another
  3. pain tolerance
    • pain tolerance: maximum intensity or duration of pain that a person is willing to
    • endure before a person wants some action taken on that. This is extremely
    • variable from one person to another
  4. classifications of pain
    two main classification of pain:

    • 1.Nocioceptive:
    • which
    • can either somatic or visceral. 

    • Nocioceptive pain,  is pain resulting from
    • ongoing stimulation of nerve by noxious stimuli.

    •  
    •  Somatic has identifiable focal point and follows distribution of
    • nerve.  it is well localized, sharp, and pain at point of stimulus

    • visceral:
    • diffuse, can be referred to another area, often described as dull and
    • vague. 

    •  
    •  Ex . occurs when organ capsule is distended or when there is obstruction
    • of hollow viscos

    • nociocpetive pain whether somatic of visceral
    • responds well to nsaids and opiod
    • analgesics

    • 2. Neuropathic
    • pain:
    • caused by abnormal processing of painful stimuli.  Dysfunction of CNS that
    • allows for spontaneous excitation leading to severe pain. can be generated
    • peripherally or centrally. Difficult to treat.  Pain described as burning,
    • tingling, or shock like.

    • can
    • be associated w/ subjective numbness, loss of sensation , and weakness.

    • •does
    • not respond well to NSAIDS or opiods analgesic alone,  adjunctive
    • analgesic may be efficacious in treating neuropathic pain.

    • •adjunctive
    • analgesic : med that is approved and used for other reasons than analgesics
    • properties:  ex) tricyclic antidepressant & anticonvulsant
    • drugs. 

    • Acute
    • pain

    • -is
    • mostly nocioceptive

    • - it
    • is caused by noxious stimuli which activate peripheral nocioceptive response

    • -it
    • associated w/ neuro-endocrine stress response that is
    • proportional to intensity of stimulus.

    • -most
    • forms of acute pain are self limited or resolves w/ tx resolve tx
    • such as w/ opioids or stimulus with in a few days or weeks.   If pain
    • does not resolve it can become chronic.

    • Chronic
    • pain: pain
    • that lasts longer than course of disease or injury

    •  -
    • may be nociocpetive or neuropathic

    • in this type of pain, psychological mechanisms or environmental factors play a
    • major role.

    • next we will discuss nerve classification as it results in noxious stimuli
    • transmission
  5. Nocioceptive pain
    1.Nocioceptive: which can either somatic or visceral. 

    • Nocioceptive pain,  is pain resulting from
    • ongoing stimulation of nerve by noxious stimuli.

    •  
    •  Somatic has identifiable focal point and follows distribution of nerve.  it is well localized, sharp, and pain at point of stimulus

    • visceral: diffuse, can be referred to another area, often described as dull and vague. 
    •  
    •  Ex . occurs when organ capsule is distended or when there is obstruction
    • of hollow viscos

    • nociocpetive pain whether somatic of visceral
    • responds well to nsaids and opiod
    • analgesics
  6. Neuropathic pain
    Neuropathic pain: caused by abnormal processing of painful stimuli.  Dysfunction of CNS that allows for spontaneous excitation leading to severe pain. can be generated peripherally or centrally. Difficult to treat.  Pain described as burning, tingling, or shock like.

    can be associated w/ subjective numbness, loss of sensation , and weakness.

    •does not respond well to NSAIDS or opiods analgesic alone,  adjunctive analgesic may be efficacious in treating neuropathic pain.

    • •adjunctive analgesic : med that is
    • approved and used for other reasons than analgesics properties:  ex) tricyclic antidepressant & anticonvulsant drugs.
  7. acute vs chronic pain
    Acute pain

    -is mostly nocioceptive

    - it is caused by noxious stimuli which activate peripheral nocioceptive response

    -it associated w/ neuro-endocrine stress response that is proportional to intensity of stimulus.

    -most forms of acute pain are self limited or resolves w/ tx resolve tx such as w/ opioids or stimulus with in a few days or weeks.   If pain does not resolve it can become chronic.

    Chronic pain: pain that lasts longer than course of disease or injury

     - may be nociocpetive or neuropathic

    in this type of pain, psychological mechanisms or environmental factors play a major role.

    next we will discuss nerve classification as it results in noxious stimuli transmission
  8. specific nerves that carry pain
    • specific nerves that carry pain = A delta (carry fast pain, sometimes referred to as
    • first pain) & C fibers (carry slow pain sensation aka second pain)

    fast pain results as activation of a delta fibers, these fibers are myelinated
  9. fast pain
    So fast pain results from activation of A-delta fibers and as you can see these fibers are myelinated. Pain transmitted along these fibers consists of a sharp, prickling sensation which is accurately localized and the duration of pain carried by the A-delta fibers coincides with the duration of the painful stimulus.
  10. slow pain
    Slow pain carried by C-fibers is burning or diffuse pain which has slower onset and greater persistence and less clear location. Slow pain results from the activation of C-fibers which unmyelinated and often the duration of pain carried by these C-fibers exceeds the duration of the stimulus.
  11. is acute pain fast or slow pain
    • So acute pain is fast pain and is due to nocioception. It’s a physiologic pain, it’s
    • transient, usually of brief duration, and easily treated with NSAIDS or opioids
  12. what are the neuronal changes seen in chronic pain?
    • Chronic pain is different, it’s a pathologic problem with the sensations carried by
    • C-fibers. It persists beyond the usual course of acute disease or injury, generally persists 1-6 months post healing. When chronic is associated with a
    • loss of sensory input such as an amputation it is called deafferentation pain. Chronic pain is complex and
    • involves changes within the nervous system both centrally and peripherally.
    • There are changes in synaptic efficiency, nerve sprouting, and formation of new
    • synapses. There are different types of chronic pain. There can be sympathetic
    • mediated pain which involves changes in adrenal receptor function and there can
    • be chronic pain which is sympathetically independent.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview