Bio2020 Lab Practical #1

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bananavocado
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272455
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Bio2020 Lab Practical #1
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2014-05-07 18:42:45
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Bio2020 Lab Practical
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Bio2020 Lab Practical #1
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  1. Cerebellum
    Processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, various brain stem nuclei and sensory receptors. 

    Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for smooth, coordinated movements and agility.
  2. Primary Motor Cortex
    consciously control the precise or skilled voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles.
  3. Primary Somatosensory Area
    Receive information from the general sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors in skeletal muscles, joints and tendons.
  4. Somatosensory Association area.
    example : reaching into your pocket causes your somatosensory association cortex to draw upon stored memories of past experiences to perceive the objects you feel.
  5. Primary visual (striate) cortex
    receives visual information that originates on the retina of the eyes.
  6. Visual association area
    uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (color, form and movement., enabling us to recognize things.
  7. Primary Auditory cortex
    sound is interpreted as pitch, loudness and location.
  8. Auditory association area
    Memories of sounds heard in the past appear to be stored here for reference. Wernicke's area includes parts of the auditory cortex.
  9. Gustatory cortex
    Taste.
  10. Premotor cortex
    Helps plans movements.
  11. Prefrontal cortex
    • Most complicated cortical region.
    • Involved with intellect, complex learning abilities (cognition), recall and personality.
  12. Frontal eye field
    Controls voluntary eye movement.
  13. Broca's and Wernicki's are.
    Broca : speech

    Wernicki : understanding language
  14. Medulla Oblongata
    Maintaining body homeostasis. (cardiovascular center, respiratory center and regulates activities like vomiting, hiccups, swallowing, coughing and depth of breathing.)
  15. Spinal Cord
    provides a two-way conduction pathway to and from the brain.
  16. Pons
    Part of the reticular formation and some help the medulla oblongata maintain the normal rhythm of breathing.
  17. Optic Nerve/Chiasm
    fibers from the medial aspect of each eye cross over to the opposite side and then continue through the optic tracts.
  18. Pyramids of Medulla
    this crossover, each hemisphere chiefly controls the voluntary movements of muscles on the opposite side of the body.
  19. Mammilary bodies
    relay stations in the olfactory pathways
  20. Cerebral Peduncles
    hold up the cerebrum.
  21. Infundibulum
    connects the pituitary gland to the base of the hypothalamus.
  22. cerebral aquaduct
    contains CSF
  23. Pineal Body
    secretion of hormones.
  24. Choroid Plexus
    Forms the CSF
  25. Thalamus
    Hal and Amus
  26. Corpus Callosum
    joins the two hemispheres.
  27. Fornix
    connects hippocampus to hypothalamus
  28. Basal Nuclei
    controls cognition, movement coordination, voluntary movement.
  29. Structure of a nerve
  30. Olfactory nerve I
    Sense of smell
  31. Optic nerve II
    sense of vision
  32. Oculomotor nerve III
    • Focus on objects. 
    • Moves eyes up, down, sideways or in.
  33. Trochlear nerve IV
    moves eyes sideways and down.
  34. Trigeminal nerve V
    three (tri) branches. Supplies sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers to the chewing muscles.
  35. Abducens nerve VI
    controls the extrinsic eye muscle that abuts the eyeballs (turns it laterally)
  36. Facial nerve VII
    forms tears and saliva. Able to taste.
  37. Vestibulochochlear nerve VIII
    hearing and balance.
  38. Glossopharyngeal nerve IX
    Swallow, blood pressure and taste sensation.
  39. Vagus nerve X
    • Extends from the brain stem to the abdomen.
    • Keeps heart rate constant and controls digestion.
  40. Accessory Nerve XI
    controls certain neck muscles.
  41. Hypoglossal Nerve XII
    Gets all of the muscles of your tongue.



  42. Simple Squamous Epithelium .
    Function + Location
    • - Allows materials to pass by through diffusion and filtration sites. Secretes lubricating substances.
    • - Kidney, air sacs of lungs, blood vessels.


  43. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 
    Function + Location
    • - Secretion and absorption 
    • - Kidney, small glands and ovary surfaces.


  44. Simple Columnar Epithelium 
    Function + Location
    • - Secretion and absorption
    • - non ciliated line the digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts.


  45. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
    Function + Location
    • - Secretes and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
    • - non ciliated is in male's sperm ducts, trachea and upper respiratory tract.


  46. Stratified squamous epithelium 
    Function + Location
    • - Protects underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion.
    • - Esophagus, mouth and vagina


  47. Transitional Epithelium 
    Function + Location
    • - stretches, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ.
    • - lines the ureters, bladder and part of the urethra


  48. Hyaline Cartilage
    Function + Location
    • - supports and reinforces.
    • - costal cartilage, nose and trachea.


  49. Elastic cartilage 
    Function + Location
    • - Maintains shape of structure while being flexible.
    • - supports external ear.



  50. Fibrocartilage 
    Function + Location
    • - tensile strength allows to absorb shock.
    • - pubic synthesis, disks of knee joint and intervertebral discs.


  51. Areolar Connective Tissue 
    Function + Location
    • - wraps and cushions organs.
    • - packages organs and surrounds capillaries.


  52. Adipose Tissue 
    Function + Location
    • - Provides reserve food fuel.
    • - around kidneys and eyeballs, within abdomen.


  53. Reticular Connective Tissue 
    Function + Location
    • - Fibers form soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types.
    • - lymphoid organs.


  54. Dense regular connective tissue
    Function + Location
    • - attaches muscles to bones.
    • - tendons, most ligaments.


  55. Dense irregular connective tissue
    Function + Location
    • - withstands tension in many directions.
    • - organs and joints, dermis of the skin.
  56. Bone Tissue 
    Function + Location
    • - supports and protects. Stores calcium and fats.
    • - bones
  57. Skeletal Muscle 
    Function + Location
    • - voluntary movement.
    • - in skeletal muscles.
  58. Motor Neuron 
    Function + Location
    • - transmit electrical signals. 
    • - brain, spinal cord and nerves.
  59. Sclera
    Protects and Shapes the eyeball
  60. Cornea
    forms a window that lets light enter the eyed light bending apparatus.
  61. Choroid
    Vascular Layer
  62. Purpose of pigmented layer of Retina
    absorbs light and prevents it from scattering into the eye
  63. What are the three neuron types found in the neural layer of the retina
    - photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
  64. Composition of blood. 
    What's in there and the function?
    • - reddish mass at the bottom is the erythrocytes, red blood cells that carry oxygen. 
    • - Whitish layer is called the buffy coat and contains leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets.
    • - Plasma is least dense component and makes up most of the whole blood.
  65. Know the general constituents of plasma and the function that they serve (water, proteins, platelets, salts, etc.)
    • - water : absorbs heat
    • - Electrolytes : helps maintain plasma osmotic pressure and normal blood pH.
    • - Plasma Proteins : osmotic pressure and maintain water balance in blood and tissues. 
    • - Nutrients : materials absorbed from digestive tract and transported through the body.
    • - Respiratory gases : oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • - Hormones : steroid carried by plasma proteins.
  66. Know the major cell types in the formed elements of blood, and the general function each of these cells serve.
    • - Erythrocytes : dedicated to their job of transporting respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
    • - Leukocytes : defense against diseases. 
    • - Platelets : essential for clotting purposes.
  67. Understand how RBCs carry oxygen, and what determines the observed color of a RBC under a microscope.  What is hemoglobin?
    Hemoglobin is the protein that makes red blood cells red, binds easily and reversibly with oxygen, and most oxygen carries in blood is bound to hemoglobin. 

    • In the lungs, when oxygen binds to iron, the hemoglobin, now called oxyhemoglobin
    • becomes ruby red. 
    • In body tissues, oxygen detaches from iron and hemoglobin results in deoxyhemoglobin and becomes dark red.
  68. Understand how to obtain a hematocrit reading and the formula to obtain the relative percentages of RBC, WBC, and plasma.
    • • Hematocrit reading is obtained by a 
    • centrifuge.

    • • Erythrocytes:
    • Healthy Males : 47% +/- 5% (42-52)
    • Healthy Females : 42% +/- 5% (37-47)
    • • Leukocytes : less than 1% 
    • • Plasma : remaining 55%
  69. How can you tell if a person is anemic or polycythemic?
    Anemic : person's blood oxygen carrying capacity is too low. Caused by blood loss, not enough blood cells produced and too many RBC destroyed. They are often fatigued, pale, short of breath and chilled.

    Polycythemic : excess of erythrocytes that increases blood viscosity. Increased oxygen Causes greater endurance and speed. BUT. Risk of heart failure and stroke.e
  70. Understand the terms leukocytosis (High wbc, indicates infection, hemorrage, metabolic disease, poison by chemicals), leucopenia (low WBCs), polycythemia, and anemia.  What could be a cause of any of these types of conditions?
    Leukocytosis : white blood cell count is over 11,000.
  71. Be able to recognize the following from slides: polycythemia (too many RBCs, why would this be bad?), sickle-cell anemia, iron deficiency anemia
    • Polycythemia 
    • Sickle Cell Anemia 
    • Iron deficiency 
  72. Understand sickle-cell anemia.  What is the cause?  Why is this disease still around?
    • Caused by a change in just one of the amino acids in a globin molecule. Causes blood cells to have a crescent shape. 
    • Still around because of malaria. Sickling reduces the malaria parasites' ability to survive and enhances macrophages.
  73. Be able to recognize the following blood disorders from their microscope slides and state what is occurring in a patient’s body. (Cause + Effect)

    Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia
    Pernicious Anemia
    Infectious Mononucleiosis
    Sickle Cell Anemia
    Trypanosoma
    • - Caused by too many blood stem cells become abnormal lymphocytes and cannot fight infection. Swollen lymph nodes and tiredness
    • - Caused by not being able to absorb B12. Fatigue, pale skin, shortness of breath.
    • - Caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands
    • - Caused by genetic. Fatigue, shortness of breath, headache
    • - Caused by Trypanosoma Cruzi, a parasite. Damage to the heart and GI tract years later. 



  74. You should be able to recognize each type of blood cell (rbc’s, wbc’s) from pictures or slides and give the function.


    • -Neutrophils : bacteria slayers
    • -Eosinophil : modulators of the immune response
    • -Basophil : Makes blood vessels dilate and attracts white blood cells to the inflamed site.
    • -Lymphocyte : Has t-cells and B cells which acts directly to the virus and gives rise to plasma cells.
    • -Monocyte : highly phagocytic.
  75. Understand what blood antigens are.  Know the major types of antigens that are tested for when blood-typing humans.
    Genetically determined glycoproteins. 

    A, B, AB, O
  76. Understand what antibodies are, and what cell types produce them.  Why can’t a person with type A blood receive a transfusion from a person with type B blood?  When in a person’s life is each type of antibody produced?
    • - Antibodies : blood protein produced in response to counter an antigen.
    • - Type A produces B-antigen. They can only get B-antigens. Type B does not produce B-antigens. Blood will agglutinate. 
    • - Conception.
  77. Which blood type would be the universal donor, and which type would be the universal recipient?  Why?  Know what type of blood a person could receive given their blood type, and know what blood types could be donated to a person with a given blood antigen.
    • Universal Donor : O 
    • Universal Recipient : AB
    • AB makes no antibodies. O doesn't have any antigens so antibodies aren't made to go against it.
  78. What is the rH factor?  How does the +/- of a person’s blood type affect who they can give to/receive from?
    • - genetically determined protein that can be present on red blood cell membranes. 
    • - You either have it or you don't.
  79. How would you test a person’s blood type?  Know how each blood type would react when exposed to anti-antigen serums.
    - Take their blood sample and apply anti A, anti B and Rh serums on it and find out which ones clog.
  80. Know where blood cells are created in the body, and know what hormone controls the production of RBCs, and where this hormone is produced.
    • - produces in the bone marrow.
    • - Horomone erythropoietin.
    • - Produced in the kidneys which is able to sense oxygen tension and extracellular volume.

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