Anatomy Hormones and Disorders from Them

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Author:
eatenbread
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272462
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Anatomy Hormones and Disorders from Them
Updated:
2014-04-29 23:19:28
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hormones anatomy hormone disorders
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Anatomy
Description:
Hormones and disorders from them that we need to know for Anatomy class
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  1. hGH
    • (human growth hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: bone & muscle
    • function: bone growth & muscle growth
    • dysfunctions: acromegly, pituitary gigantism, & pituitar dwarfism
  2. TSH
    • (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitar
    • targets: thyroid gland
    • function: makes thyroid gland produce either T3 or T4 hormones
  3. LH
    • (luteinizing hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: ovary
    • function: triggers ovulation
  4. Prolactin
    • (PRL)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: mammary glands
    • function: development of milk during and after pregnancy
  5. ACTH
    • (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: anything from adrenal glands except adrenaline
    • function: stimulates adrenal, cortico, & tropic glands
  6. MSH
    • (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: skin
    • function: stimulate production and release of melanin by melanocytes (determines skin color)
  7. FSH
    • (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    • from: anterior pituitary
    • targets: follicles in ovary
    • function: regulates development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body
  8. Oxytocin
    • from: posterior pituitary
    • targets: uterus
    • function: positive feedback for contractions during labor (more oxytocin = more contractions)
  9. ADH
    • (antidiuretic hormone)
    • from: posterior pituitary
    • targets: kidney
    • function: tells kidneys not to make urine
    • dysfunction: diabetes insipidus
  10. T3
    • (triiodothyronine)
    • from: thyroid
    • targets: all cells (mainly mitochondria)
    • function: BMR
    • dysfunction: exophthalmos (a symptom)
  11. T4
    • (thyroxine)
    • from: thyroid
    • targets: all cells (mainly mitochondria)
    • function: BMR
    • dysfunction: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, & goiter
  12. calcitonin
    • from: thyroid
    • targets: bone & kidneys
    • function: reduces blood calcium levels
    • antagonist: PTH
  13. PTH
    • (parathyroid hormone)
    • from: parathyroid
    • targets: bone
    • function: increases blood calcium level
    • synergist: calcitriol
    • antagonist: calcitonin
  14. melatonin
    • from: pineal gland
    • targets: reticular formation
    • function: modulates sleep patterns
  15. thymasin
    • from: thymus 
    • targets: WBC
    • function: promote proliferation and maturation of T-cells
  16. ANP
    • (atrial natriuretic peptide)
    • antagonist: aldosterone
    • from: heart
    • targets: heart, vessels, & kidney
    • function: reduce blood pressure & opens kidneys to dump out water
  17. insulin
    • from: pancreas (secreted by beta cells)
    • targets: liver
    • function: lowers glucose and glucagon levels in blood by making glycogen
    • antagonist: glucagon
  18. glucagon
    • from: pancreas (secreted by alpha cells)
    • targets: liver
    • function: tells liver to break down starch to raise blood sugar levels
    • antagonist: insulin
  19. calcitriol
    • from: kidney
    • targets: kidney & small intestine
    • function: has kidney cells and the small intestine to absorb more calcium to raise calcium level of blood
    • synergist: PTH
  20. EPO
    • (erythropoietin)
    • from: kidney
    • targets: red bone marrow
    • function: makes you make more RBC (pos. feedback)
  21. histamine
    • from: mast cells
    • targets: mucous membrane
    • function: causes allergy symptoms & inflammation of mucous membrane
  22. leukotrienes
    • from: mast cells
    • targets: WBC
    • function: causes allergy symptoms & tells WBC where particles are
  23. hCG
    • (human chorionic gonadotropin)
    • from: uterus
    • targets: placenta
    • function: helps chorionic membrane implant into wall of uterus
  24. relaxin
    • from: uterus
    • targets: pubic symphysis
    • function: softens pubic symphysis to allow the pelvic girdle to stretch
  25. progesterone
    • from: uterus
    • targets: chorionic villi
    • function: hormone of pregnancy; keeps uterus filled w/ blood & fluid, thus preventing miscarriage
  26. estrogen
    • from: ovary
    • targets: most cell tissues
    • function: promotes female sexual characteristics
  27. testosterone
    • from: testes
    • targets: testis, muscle, bone, & prostate
    • function: make sure sperm is correct & promotes male sexual characteristics (inc. muscle, bone mass, & body hair)
  28. DHEA
    • (dehydroepiandrosterone)
    • from: adrenal cortex
    • targets: muscle tissue, fat tissue, & hair follicles
    • function: gives women secondary sexual characteristics 
    • dysfunction: virilism & gynecomastia
  29. aldosterone
    • from: adrenal cortex
    • targets: kidney
    • function: makes you retain sodium, and thus water; regulates blood pressure this way
    • synergist: ADH
  30. cortisol
    • from: adrenal cortex
    • targets: liver & muscles
    • function: anti-inflammatory, response to extreme stress, and promotes healing by giving energy
  31. adrenaline
    • from: adrenal medulla
    • targets: heart, blood vessels, & smooth muscles
    • function: response to stress & exhilirating situations
  32. gastrin
    • from: stomach (G cells)
    • targets: cells that produce gastric juice
    • function: stimulate production of gastric juice
  33. secretin
    • from: small intestine
    • targets: small intestine & pancreas
    • function: release intestinal & pancreatic juice
  34. GIP
    • (gastric inhibitory peptide)
    • from: small intestine
    • targets: stomach
    • function: inhibits stomach (slows it down)
  35. CCK
    • (cholecystokinin)
    • from: small intestine
    • targets: gallbladder
    • function: squirts bile into intestine by making gallbladder contract
  36. EGF
    • (epidermal growth factor)
    • from: skin
    • targets: skin cells
    • function: make skin grow quicker
  37. NGF
    • (neuronal growth factor)
    • from: nerves
    • targets: nerve cells
    • function: development of brain and nerve tissue (only when young)
  38. virilism
    development of masculine physical traits
  39. acromegaly
    abnormal growth of hands, feet, & face, caused by overproduction of hGH (after fully grown)
  40. cretinism
    stunted physical & mental growth b/c of untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones
  41. cushings disease
    exposure to high levels of cortisol causes: hump between shoulders, round face, & stretch marks
  42. diabetes insipidus
    intense thirst & incessant peeing caused by kidney unable to respond properly to ADH
  43. diabetes mellitus type I
    pancreas produces little to no insulin (life-long & aka insulin dependent)
  44. diabetes mellitus type II
    becomes resistant to insulin (aka non-insulin dependent), most common (75-80% of diabetes)
  45. diabetic shock
    caused by imbalance of insulin, can lead to fainting, coma, or even death
  46. exopthalamus
    abnormal protrusion of the eye/eyeball (symptom of pituitary or thyroid problem)
  47. goiter
    swelling of the neck resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland b/c of an iodine deficiency
  48. gynocomastia
    enlargement of a man's breasts from hormone imbalance (DHEA)
  49. myxedema
    swelling of skin & underlying tissues, gives a waxy appearance
  50. pituitary dwarfism
    pituitary doesn't make enough hGH, results in unusually small stature
  51. pituitary gigantism
    excessive growth due to chronic overactivity of pituitary gland
  52. SAD
    (seasonal affective disorder) depression that occurs during winter b/c of lack of melatonin b/c not enough daylight

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