Ch 8 part 2

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  1. cognitive theorists believe that people with unipolar depression persistently view events in ____ ways and that such perceptions lead to their disorder
  2. two most influential cognitive explanations are theory of ____ thinking and the theory of learned _____
    negative; helplessness
  3. Aaron Beck believes that ___ thinking rather than underlying conflicts or a reduction in positive ____, lies at the heart of depression.
    negative; rewards
  4. Beck believes people develop maladaptive attitudes as ____
  5. These attitudes result from their own experiences, their family relationships, and judgements of people around them. an example would be "my general worth is tied to every task I perform"
    maladaptive attitudes
  6. consists of individuals repeatedly interpreting
    1-their experiences
    3- their futures in negative ways that lead them to feel depressed
    cognitive triad
  7. a steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to them that they are inadequate and that their situation is hopeless. helps maintain psychological dysfunction
    automatic thoughts
  8. the more maladaptive attitudes someone holds, the more _____ they tend to be
  9. depressed people make more errors in ____, in their interpretations than non-depressed women did
  10. people who repeatedly dwell mentally on their mood without acting to change it (ruminative responses) experience _____ longer and are more likely to develop clinical depression later in life than people who ____ such ruminations
    dejection; avoid
  11. theory of depression that holds that people become depressed when they think
    1-that they no longer have control over the reinforcements in their lives
    2- that they themselves are responsible
    learned helplessness
  12. Seligman proposed that people in fact become depressed after developing a general belief that they have no ____ over reinforcements in their lives
  13. when people view events as beyond their control, they as themselves why this si so
    attribution helplessness theory
  14. sociocultural theorists propose that unipolar depression is greatly influenced by the social ____ that surrounds people. They believe that depression is triggered by outside ______
  15. depressed people often display weak ___ skills and _____ poorly
    social, communicate
  16. depressed people usually speak more __ and ____ and in more monotone than nondepressed peoples
    slowly and quietly
  17. high correlation between ____ conflict and sadness
  18. those whose lives are _____ and without intimacy are particularly likely to become depressed in times of stress
  19. depressed people that lack ___ support stay depressed longer
  20. _______ Perspective: Two kinds of relationships
    1- links between gender and depression
    2- links between cultural and ethnic background and depression
  21. women are at least ___ times as likely to receive a diagnosis of unipolar depression
  22. women appear to be ___when depression strikes, and have more ____ and longer lasting bouts. they also respond _____ successfully to treatment
    younger; frequent; less
  23. explanation holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women
    hormone explanation
  24. this theory suggests that women in ours society experience more stress than men
    life stress theory
  25. this explanation states that females in western society are taught, almost from birth, to seek a low body weight and slender body type
    body dissatisfaction explanation
  26. theory argues that women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over their lives. studies have shown that women are more prone to develop learned helplessness
    lack of control theory
  27. this theory proposes a tendency to keep focusing on ones feelings when depressed and to consider repeatedly the causes and consequences of depression. it turns out that women are more likely than men to ruminate when their moods darken, perhaps making them more vulnerable to depression
    rumination theory
  28. depression varies from ____ to ___
  29. in these countries, depressed people are more likely to be troubled by ____ symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, sleep disturbances, and weight loss. depression in these countries are less marked by _____ symptoms
    physical; cognitive. NON WESTERN CUNT(ries)
  30. in the US there is ____ difference between ethnic group in symptoms of depression
  31. specific ethnic groups living under unusually ___ circumstances sometimes do have a strikingly ___ rates of depression
    circumstances; high
  32. within ____ populations, the likelihood of being depressed ___ along with the individuals degree of poverty , family size, and number of health problems
    minority; rose
  33. depression is ___ distributed within some minority groups
  34. people are considered to be in a full ____ episode when for at least a week they display abnormally high or irritable mood, along with at least three other symptoms of ____
    manic; mania
  35. when symptoms of mania are less severe, the person is said to be experiencing a ____ episode
  36. if people experience four or more mood episodes within a one-year period a bi polar persons disorder is classified as ____ cycling
  37. people with bipolar disorder tend to experience ___ more than ____
    depression; mania
  38. ____ to ____ of all adults suffer from bipolar disorder at any given time
  39. bipolar I is ___ common than bipolar II. yet they are _____ common in men and women
    more; equally
  40. onset of bipolar disorder occurs between the ages of ___ and ___ years of age
  41. when a person experiences numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms, the DSM considers this _____ disorder
  42. this many peoples have cyclothymic disorderz
  43. one study found that ____ activity tends to be higher in persons with mania than that of depressed or control research participants
  44. Low ____ activity accompanied by low norepinephrine activity may lead to _____; low serotonin activity accompanied by high _____ activity may lead to _____
    serotonin; depression; norepinephrine; mania
  45. investigators have found ____ deficits in the ____ of people suffering from bipolar disorder and have observed abnormal functioning in proteins that help transport ions across a neurons membranes
    membrane; neurons
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Ch 8 part 2
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