Ecology final set III

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Ecology final set III
2014-05-03 02:53:22

3rd set for ecology final
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  1. spots on reef fish that looks like an eye and confuses predators
    deflection spots
  2. interspecific interaction that benefits both species
  3. 2 examples of mutualism
    • bird dentist cleaning alligator teeth
    • plants give nectar to insects, insects pollenates
  4. coevolution example
    • Acacia trees & ants
    • ants attack herbivores
    • cleans to prevent fires
    • get home and food(nectar)
    • *trees w/no ants=no hallow thorns
  5. one species benefits and the other is apparently unaffected
  6. why isn't cattle/birds & algae/turtle shells good examples of coevolution?
    • birds eat ectoparasites and give warning call of predators=benefit to cattle
    • turtle is camouflaged with algae, takes more energy to swim
  7. reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species
  8. 2 caveats to coevolution
    • loosely used to describe adaptations in community
    • little evidence in most interspecific interactions
  9. two types of species that exert strong controls on community structure
    • dominant
    • keystone
  10. two fundamental features of community structure are
    • diversity and feeding relationships
    • tropic interactions
  11. variety of organisms that make up the community
    species diversity of a community
  12. two components to species diversity of a community
    • species richness
    • relative abundance
  13. total number of different species in the community
    species richness
  14. proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community
    relative abundance
  15. feeding relationships between organisms in a community
    *key factor in community dynamics
    trophic structure
  16. what links tropic levels from producers to top carnivores
    *energy flow through system
    food chains
  17. equation to determine diversity and richness
    Shannon weaver index
  18. percent of lose for each step in a food chain
  19. what is at the bottom of the terrestrial & marine food chain
    • plant
    • phytoplankton
  20. branching food chain with complex trophic interactions
    food web
  21. two hypothesis of why in each food chain in a food web is usually only a few links long
    • 1. energetic hypothesis
    • 2. dynamic stability hypothesis
  22. food chain length is limited by inefficient energy transfer
    energetic hypothesis
  23. long food chains are less stable then short ones
    dynamic stability
  24. what hypothesis on limits on food chain length has the most data to support it?
    energetic hypothesis
  25. species that are most abundant or have the highest biomass
    dominant species
  26. what two things does the dominant species exert power over of other species?
    occurrence and distribution
  27. two hypothesis to explain dominant species
    • 1. most competitive in exploiting resources
    • 2. most successful at avoiding predators
  28. species that are not necessarily abundant in community but exert strong control of community ecological roles, or niches
    keystone species
  29. actions that ripples through a system
    eg. keystone species
    tropic cascade
  30. two examples of keystone species
    • sea stars
    • sea otters
  31. organisms that exert influence by causing physical changes in environment that affects community structure
    • ecosystem engineers
    • foundation species
  32. example of a foundation species having a negative affect on the community
    • nutria-overgrown muskrat
    • brought here for fur pelts, they escaped & population boom
    • creating mud flats
  33. model of community organization proposes a unidirectional influence from lower to higher tropic levels
    bottom-up model
  34. model proposes that control comes from the trophic level above
    top-down model
  35. example of bottom-up model
    • phytoplankton
    • base of food chain,
    • none of these=no energy in system
  36. what can help restore polluted communites
  37. a model that describes communities as constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances
    nonequilibrium model
  38. an event that changes a community, removes organisms from it, and alters resource availability
  39. what 2 factors determine magnitude of impact on community response for a disturbance
    intensity & frequency
  40. disturbance hypothesis that suggest moderate levels of disturbance can foster higher diversity
    intermediate disturbance hypothesis
  41. most widespread agents of disturbance
  42. affects of human disturbance/nondisturbance
    • -reduces species diversity
    • -prevent naturally occurring disturbances
  43. dead material
  44. species that consumes dead materials
  45. sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance
    ecological succession
  46. occurs where no soil exists when succession begins
    bare, starting point
    • primary succession
    • sand dunes, receded glacier
  47. begins in an area where soil remains after disturbance
    pushing to earlier time
    • secondary succession
    • cutting trees
  48. plants(conifers need sun to grow)
    shad intolerant
  49. example of human disturbance preventing naturally occurring events
    • hoover dam/Colorado river/lake mead
    • have release of water to clean out debry & system
    • -flushing effects
  50. 3 ways a species can change environment for future species
    • facilitate appearance/make more favorable
    • inhibit establishment
    • tolerate later species/no impact
  51. in what ways can early-arriving species inhibit establishment of later species?
    secrete chemicals that prevent growth
  52. rice farmers in CA were paid to flood land, why?
    pop up wetlands good for migratory birds
  53. what are pop up wetlands good for? 2 terms
    • increase biodiversity
    • reconciliation ecology
  54. a valuable field-research opportunity for observing primary succession
    retreating glaciers
  55. two key factors correlated w/community's species diversity are:
    • geographic location
    • size
  56. Species richness declines probably due to history and climate
    Equatorial-Polar gradients
  57. where is species diversity the greatest?
  58. what is the primary cause of latitudinal gradient in biodiversity?
  59. two main climatic factors correlated with biodiversity:
    • solar energy
    • water availability
  60. term for measuring solar energy and water availability in a community
    community's rate of evapotranspiration
  61. evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration of water from plants
  62. this curve quantifies that a larger geographic area has more species
    species-area curve
  63. what does species richness on islands depend on?
    • island size
    • distance from mainland
    • immigration
    • extinction
  64. model showing the balancing number of species on an island
    island equilibrium model
  65. 2 hypothesis on community structure emerged:
    • integrated hypothesis-Clements
    • individualistic hypothesis-Gleason
  66. hypothesis that describes a community as an assemblage of closely linked species/locked into association by MANDATORY biotic interactions
    who's is it?
    • Integrated hypothesis
    • Clements
  67. hypothesis that proposes that communities are loosely organized associations of independently distributed species with the same abiotic requirements
    who's is it?
    • individualistic hypothesis
    • Gleason
  68. what does the individualistic hypothesis predicts on how each species is distributed
    according to its tolerance ranges for abiotic factors
  69. this model suggests that all species in a community are linked in a tight web of interactions
    rivet and redundancy models
  70. model that proposes that if a species is lost, other species will fill the gap
    -AND that loss of even a single species has strong repercussions for the community
    rivet and redundancy models
  71. consists of all organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact
  72. range of ecosystems
    microcosm(aquarium)->large area(lake or forest)
  73. two main processes involved with dynamics o ecosystem
    • energy flow-through system
    • chemical cycling-inside system
  74. how do ecologists view ecosystems?
    as transformers of energy and processors of matter
  75. laws of physics and chemistry apply to ecosystems, so energy is conserved but....
    degraded to heat during ecosystem processes
  76. flow of energy and nutrients in trophic relationships
    • primary producers(autotrophs)->
    • primary consumers(herbivores)->
    • secondary consumers(carnivores)
  77. Flow of energy in an ecosystem
  78. what connects all trophic levels and how?
    • decomposition
    • bc we die, rot and provide nutrients
  79. what recycles essential chemical elements by decomposing organic material and returning elements to inorganic reservoirs
    name 2
    • detritivores
    • bacteria & fungi
  80. what are we determining when frogs are blended, drained and dried in oven?
    • ecological energies
    • calories required to live
  81. term for the fraction of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration by organism
    production efficiency
  82. funny story about Standora researching production efficiency of turtles
    poop condom filled with farts
  83. percentage of production transferred from one tropic level to the next
    Trophic efficiency
  84. BTU
    British Thermal Unit
  85. typical percent of energy used for growth of animal from food
    5% to 20%
  86. things that settle to the bottom
    -nutrients to the bottom of the ocean
  87. what is happening to pigs right now in America -what is it relevant too
    -how many deaths
    • PEDv
    • density dependent via disease
    • 7 million deaths since June
    • 10% of US hogs
  88. PEDv
    porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in pigs
  89. what follows a succession on the moraines in Glacier Bay, AK
    predictable pattern of change in vegetation and soil characteristics
  90. 2 plants and ways they are modifying habitat for the next generation(primary succession)
    • spruce needles lower the pH of the soil 7->4
    • Alder releases N2 into soil
  91. number of times more tropical growing season is compared to poles
  92. who made the idea of the super organism?
  93. when sedimentary settles to the bottom of the ocean and much much later gets turned up
    hydrologic cycle
  94. example of nutrient cycling organic & inorganic
    • organic: ditritavores eating the dead
    • inorganic: sea turtle egg shells Ca2+
  95. 4 factors of biogeochemical cycles
    • 1. each chemicals biological importance
    • 2. forms of chemical available or used
    • 3. major reservoirs for each chemical
    • 4. processes driving movement of chemical through cycle
  96. This represents the loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain
    pyramid of net production
  97. How much energy(J) is passed up a pyramid of net production(food chain)
    • 10%
    • cut off a 0 at the end of J's
  98. what 2 processes move nutrient between organic and inorganic parts of the ecosystem
    • biological
    • geochemical
  99. nutrient circuits in ecosystems involving biotic and abiotic components are often called:
    biogeochemical cycling
  100. 4 ecological energetics (abiotic)/ cycles contributing to biogeochemical cycling
    • solar cycle
    • hydrologic cycle
    • gaseous cycle-carbon
    • sedimentary cycle-phosphorous
  101. what drives the hydrologic cycle
    sun & gravity
  102. when is H2O in abundance but unavailable for the ecological system
    frost drought
  103. what is the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels?
    less then 20%
  104. the amount of chemical energy in food converted to new biomass during a given period of time
    secondary production of an ecosystem
  105. when conducting  bomb calorimetry experiment what 2 things can the calories used be contributed to?
    • growth
    • cellular respiration
  106. what do farmers do to put nutrients back into their soil?
    • nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • plants legumes, Rhizobium, or root nodules
    • grow for a year and till into soil