BIOL 1210 Chapter 15 Vocab

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BIOL 1210 Chapter 15 Vocab
2014-04-30 10:55:45

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  1. Chromosomal theory of inheritence
    A basic principle of biology that states genes are located at specific positions (loci) on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns
  2. Crossing over
    the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non sister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis
  3. Barr body
    a dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals, representing a highly condensed, inactivated X chromosome
  4. Aneuploidy
    a chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number
  5. wild type
    the phenotype most observed in natural populations; also refers to the individual with that phenotype
  6. turner syndrome
    a genetic condition in which a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes
  7. Klinefelter syndrome
    the presence of an extra X chromosome in a male
  8. euploidy
    refers to cells with an exact multiple of the haploid number, N: Diploid=twice the haploid number, 2N. Triploid is 3x the haplid number, 3N. Tetraploid=4x the haploid number, 4N, etc.
  9. nondisjunction
    an error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other
  10. sex linked gene
    A gene located on either sex chromosome
  11. linked gene
    genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together
  12. genetic recombination
    general term for the production of offspring with the combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent
  13. parental type
    an offspring with the phenotype that matches of of the true breeding parental (p generation) phenotypes; also refers to the phenotype itself
  14. recombinant
    A cell or an individual with a new combination of genes not found together in either parent, usually applied to linked genes.
  15. recombinant frequency
    a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map; the frequency with which a single chromosomal crossover will take place between two genes during meiosis
  16. monosomic
    referring to a diploid cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two
  17. trisomic
    referring to a diploid cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two
  18. polyploidy
    a chromosomal alteration in which the organism  possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. The result of an accident of cell division
  19. hemophilia
    a human genetic disease caused by a sex linked recessive allele resulting in the absence of one or more blood clotting proteins; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury
  20. trisomy 21 aka down syndrome
    a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46