BIOL Chapter 16 Vocab

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BIOL Chapter 16 Vocab
2014-04-30 11:42:49

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  1. complimentary base pairing
    Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick basepairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is independent of its nucleotide sequence
  2. Guanine-pairs with
    Cytosine-pairs with
  3. adenine-pairs with
    thymine-pairs with
  4. semiconservative model of replication
    type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand
  5. origin of replication
    site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides
  6. replication fork
    a Y shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where the parental strands are being unwound and new strands are being synthesized
  7. helicase
    an enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at replication forks, separating the two strands and making them available as template strands
  8. primer
    a short stretch of RNA with a free 3' end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand and elongated with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication
  9. primase
    an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make a primer during DNA replication, using the parental DNA strand as a template
  10. DNA polymerase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain
  11. leading strand
    the new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in the mandatory 5' > 3' direction
  12. lagging strand
    a discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' > 3' direction away from the replication fork
  13. Okazaki fragments
    a short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication. Many such segments are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA
  14. mismatch repair
    the cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides
  15. nuclease
    an enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA, either removing one or a few bases or hydrolyzing the DNA or RNA completely into its component nucleotides
  16. nucleotide
    the building block of nucleic acid, consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
  17. nucleotide excision repair
    a repair system that removes then correctly replaces a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide
  18. telomeres
    the repetitive DNA at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome's DNA molecule. They protect the organism's genes from being eroded during successive rounds of replication
  19. telomerase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells