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What is moral reasoning?
finding the rational behind our thinking
What do the stages of moral reasoning produce?
they help develop our life conscience (right vs. wrong, separate from religion)
What is important with the styles of thinking in the context of moral reasoning?
the content of thinking is more important (why you are thinking certain things like why you believe stealing is bad) rather than the form of thinking (what you are thinking)
What are the levels and stages of moral reasoning?
- Level 1: Pre-conventional (seeing rules as external, not applied to me)
- stage 1: punishment & obedience (avoid being punished)
- stage 2: naive hedonism (trying to meet needs "seek pleasure", don't want to get caught)
- Level 2: Conventional (internalizing rules and laws that are established through parents)
- stage 3: good boy/girl (rules and laws come from family & peers "trying to please")
- stage 4: social order maintaining (rules and laws come from society and must be obeyed with no exceptions)
- Level 3: Post-conventional (really understand the underlying reasons for societies rules "living in whats just and right")
- stage 5: social contract (rules and laws are still seen as unchangeable but understand that there are exceptions, if rules are not seen as fair and just you will try to fight it "your belief supersedes the rules") riots and civil disobedience are likely
- stage 6: individual principles of conscience (you are completely "one" with the universe and yourself, living life for a cause and giving everything else up for the universal good)
What is decentering?
moving from through the stages from stage 1 to 6 (change from focus on the individual to focus on others/universe/greater good)
What is faith?
set of assumptions or understandings about the nature of our connections with others and the world in which we live
What are the beliefs regarding faith?
- everyone has some kind of faith whether or not they participate in organized religion
- we all have a master story (our world view/meaning system)
- stages of faith unfold in sequence but can happen at any age based on life experiences
What are the stages of faith development?
- synthetic-conventional: authority found outside oneself (conformist "fake" (synthetic), understand faith as following someone else (conventional)
- individuative-reflective: authority is found internally, most common stage for adults in their 20s and 30s (thinking about what religion means to yourself rather than when religion people tell you to go with)
- conjunctive faith: tolerant of others' beliefs; consider the welfare of others (more and more exposed to other people and their experiences, beliefs, and faiths)
- universalizing faith: live principles of love and justice (living as selfless people)
What is life transition?
wanting to feel connected or independent
What are the life transitions?
conformist (following others), form own ideas/beliefs (attending college) is the shift toward individuality (pursuing your own agenda), prolonged crisis (long job loss/unemployment) is the shift toward integration (seeking re-connection with friends and family), having a near death experience is the shift toward self transcendence (connecting with yourself)