evolution exam 3

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evolution exam 3
2014-05-11 19:22:37
sfsu evolution
evolution exam 3
sfsu evolution exam 3
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  1. 3 evidence of natural selection in darwins finches
    • antibiotic/pesticide resistance
    • industrial melanism
    • changes in sparrow body size
  2. 3 types of benefits of intersexual selection
    • direct
    • indirect
    • no benefits
  3. intersexual selection benefits 3
    • the males have evolved because they provide a direct material benefit to the female
    • male provides genetic benefits to the offspring
    • built is preference for a certain male, no indication of male quality
  4. females judge the benefits a male can provide when choosing a mate
    direct benefit
  5. 6 types of direct benefits model
    • good nesting territory
    • direct protection from predators
    • nuptual gifts
    • lower predation risk
    • lower parasitism
  6. provide food and gifts to females
    nuptual gifts
  7. lower predation risk explained
    females prefer bright colored males b/c they are easier to find and the females have a lower risk of being attacked by a predator while looking for a mate. they dont want to have to look far.
  8. lower parasitism explained
    females pick males w/ bright colors or who sing high and well to show they arent sick so the female knows by mating with the male they wont get sick either
  9. fishcers runaway sexual selection 2
    *needs to be true*
    • viability selection on some phenotype
    • genetically based female preference for relative values of that pheno
  10. indirect benefits models
    (good genes)
    females pick males based on pheno that shows they have good quality genes
  11. handicap principle
    females choose males that have a pheno that is so extreme that its a handicap to their survival
  12. 3 factors to the handicap principle
    • females choose a male who is detrimental to their fitness
    • need high genetic quality in order to survive their handicap
    • pass on good genes to both sexes but the handicap goes to the males
  13. parasite load model 2
    • females choose males w/ extra traits so it shows he has no parasites
    • parasitic resistance genes to offspring
  14. co-evolution
    one species evolution causes the evolution in another species
  15. co-evolution example
    an animal who use to be caught by predators is no able to outrun them. The predator evolves and increases its speed to catch the prey that has increased itself
  16. co-speciation
    speciation of one species causes the speciation in another species
  17. how can co-speciation occur between species
    there needs to be a relationship between taxa
  18. how can you find out speciation of one taxa causes speciation of another
    • compare phylogeny of species
    • *will not always be a 1-1 thing*
  19. symbiosis
    both of the taxa is working together (or living together) that is beneficial to both
  20. example of obligate symbiosis
    endosymbiotic theory
  21. evidence for endosymbotic theory 2
    • structures in cell look like bacteria
    • gene in mito and chloro is closer to bacteria than eukaryotes according to phylogeny
  22. character displacement
    when species that are sympatric evolve differences b/c of the competition between one another
  23. how to recognize CD
    by looking for sympatric species
  24. sympatric
    2 species live together but look different in pheno
  25. allopatric
    2 species in different places look similar
  26. altruism
    an organisms pheno is detrimental to itself but beneficial to others
  27. 3 forms of altruism
    • not really altruism
    • reciprocal altriusm
    • kin selection
  28. reciprocal altruism
    situation in which it really is altruism but the same individual is likely to be the recipient of altruism at a later time
  29. in reciprocal altruism the cost of altruism is low but the benefit of receiving it is high
  30. kin selection
    you can spread your genes by either reproducing yourself or helping others who have similar genes reproduce
  31. inclusive fitness
    fitness of an organism takes into account its direct reproduction and the reproduction of its relatives
  32. Wi=
    inclusive fitness of i
  33. ai=
    direct effect
  34. b ij=
    indirect effect of i on j
  35. r ij=
    coefficient of relationship of i and j
  36. Must help more relatives than non relatives in 2 ways
    • kin recognition
    • help kin w/o recognizing it
  37. allopolyploidy
    when diff species hybridize to create polyploid
  38. resultant species has X from the parent species and is easy to identify
  39. autopolyploidy
    when a single species undergoes polyploidization
  40. galeopsis tetrahit was a polyploid mint species
    an artifical plant s created by hybridizing G. pubescens and G. speciosa
    the hybrid was identical to the wild type found in nature and was able to breed with each other
  41. a lot of polyploid species are triploid or other odd ploidy levels
    this reduces fertility in sexual crosses
  42. gynogenesis
    egg development activated by a spermatozoon but the male gamete contributes no genetic material
  43. parthenogenesis
    when females reproduce without the involvement of males or sperm
  44. eusociality
    individuals that have given up reproduction to help others reproduce
  45. group selection
    individual selection except the individual is actually a group
  46. 2 geographical models of speciation
    • allopatric speciation
    • sympatric speciation
  47. allopatric speciation
    speciation in which a single lineage has split into diff geographical areas and those populations may evolve to become species
  48. 2 forms of allopatric speciation
    • macrovariant (dumbell) speciation
    • peripatric speciation
  49. macrovariant speciation
    speciation occurs when a single lineage splits into 2 or more subsets that involve changes to become diff species
  50. peripatric speciation (Mayr)
    speciation occurs in peripheral isolates around the species
  51. punctuated equillibrium (gould and aldridge)
    everything eventually changes either rapid or slow and all the changes that occur during evolution is due to speciation
  52. 2 forms of sympatric speciation
    • instantaneous sympatric speciation
    • gradual sympatric speciation
  53. sympatric speciation
    new species arises in the same place of the old species
  54. instantaneous sympatric speciation
    some change happening causes a reproductive isolation between those who havent changed and those who have
  55. gradual sympatric speciation
    speciation that takes many generations to evolve overtime
  56. 2 things needed in order to have gradual speciation
    • need to have assortive mating 
    • disruptive selection so species will have selection to choose a mate w/ those who look like it
  57. species concept
    attempt to define which biological discontinuities are species vs higher order taxa
  58. what are species and higher order taxa
    groups that share a common ancestors
  59. only species have cohesion mechanisms
  60. cohesion mechanisms
    evolutionary forces that make members of a species more similar to each other than to members of other species
  61. biological species concept
    species are a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
  62. mayr belived gene flow is
    cohesion mechanism
  63. gene flow at one time wasn't taken into consideration therefore studies of species focused on mechanisms preventing interspecific gene flow
  64. 2 forms of reproductive isolating mechanisms
    • premating isolation barriers
    • postmating isolation barriers
  65. premating isolation barriers
    postmating isolation barriers
    • sae your gametes
    • waste your gametes
  66. 2 types of isolation in premating isolation barriers
    • ecological isolation
    • mechanical isolation
  67. 3 ways ecological isolation can occur
    • habitat (silty vs clearwater)
    • breeding time (fall vs spring)
    • pollinator (humming bird vs bee)
  68. mechanical isolation   example
    beetles when they try to mate end up breaking off their penis in the beetle.
  69. 2 postmating isolating barriers
    • prezygotic
    • postzygotic
  70. 2 parts to postzygotic postmating isolating barriers
    • extrinsic
    • intrinsic
  71. prezygotic postmating isolating barriers subtopic
    gametic incompatibility
  72. postzygotic postingmating isolating barriers- extrinsic
    examples 2
    • ecological inviability 
    • behavorial inviability
  73. postzygotic postmating isolating barriers-intrinsic
    examples 3
    • hybrid inviability
    • hybrid sterility (ligers, mules, etc.)
    • hybrid breakdown
  74. evolutionary species concept
    cohesion mechanism is gene flow over time
    a species is a single independent lineage
  75. wrecognition species concept
    cohesion mech is gene flow
    a species is the most inclusive pop of sexually repro individuals that share a common fertilization system
  76. fertilization system of recognition species concept
    species specific mate recognition system SMRS
  77. how is recognition species diff from biological
    • BSC focused on the wrong thing
    • should be called isolation species concept
  78. ecological species concept
    NS is its cohesion mechanism
    a species is a lineage that occupies an adaptive zone minimally diff from that of any other lineage in its range and which evolves indepedently of lineages outside its range
  79. why is ecological species concept a concept 3
    • lots of lineage with gene flow were diff
    • lots of lineage with no gene flow often stayed the same
    • must be selection that maintains cohesion
  80. phylogenetics species concept 4
    cohesion through GF
    • a species is:
    • -smallest diagnosable group
    • -smallest monophyletic group
    • -smallest group with total gene coalescence
    • focused on identifying criteria rather than actual properties
  81. phylogenetic species concept is crappy because unique characters do not mean independence
  82. cohesion species concept
    cohesion mech is GF and/or NS and/or GD
    a species is the most inclusive pop with intrinsic cohesion
  83. 2 catergories of grgenetic mechanism of speciation
    • gradual mechanism
    • genetic revolutions
  84. gradual mechanism
    selection of drift causing evolutionary change to get speciation
  85. Dobzhansky and muller model for gradual mechanism states
    it takes a minimum of 2 mutations in order for speciation to occur
  86. genetic revolutions
    need to have a dramatic change in the gene pool in order to get speciation
  87. founder effect speciation
    small subset of the species break off and evolves into another species
  88. 3 types of genetic revolutions
    • peripatric speciation
    • founder flush speciation
    • genetic transilience
  89. 3 models that have founder effect that can lead to speciation
    • increased inbreeding in the founder pop
    • need to have alleles that do good as homo
    • mate choice inbreeding  causes allele freq to stay the same
  90. Mayr belived in peripatric speciation
    all speciation occured by increasing inbreeding in the founder group
  91. founder flush speciation
    two species that are closely related are found on different islands
  92. founder flush reimpposes selection
    selecting for a combo of genes so it will create a new species
  93. genetic transilience
    allele freq changes caused by FE causes selection to favor eff alleles that are diff from their ancestors
  94. speciation is a gradual buildup of differences
  95. cohesion species concept
    A species is the most inclusive population with intrinsic cohesion
  96. 2 types of prey
    • conspecific 
    • heterospecific
  97. 2 molecular techniques
    • polymorphism
    • molecular clock
  98. neutral theory
    molecular polymorphism found in a population at any given time consists mostly of alleles with equivalent effects on fitness
  99. most biologists believe 2
    • most variation is neutral
    • occasional selection resets the pop
  100. 3 ways to use molecular info
    • estimate phylogenies
    • estimate time to common ancestor of diff taxa
    • effective pop size
  101. direct benefits
    models that say the characters of the males have evolved because they provide a direct material benefit to the female
  102. indirect benefits
    males provide genetic benefits to the offspring
  103. judge characteristics that is behavior or monophylogeny of the male
    indirect benefits
  104. no benefits
    • built in preference for a certain male, no indication of male quality
    • no reason why they like it, they just do
  105. altruism will spread if you help relatives preferably
    you must help more relatives than nonrelatives
  106. haplodiploidy
    males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid
  107. workers of haplodiploidy share half of their genes and can share their genes faster by helping the queen to make more worker bees
  108. female workers of haplodiploidy have the potential to be fertile but give it up to help the queen produce
  109. wade argued that group selection can occur if done the right way. Group selection can occur if you find a model that has individual and group selection
  110. mayr stated that macrovariant cannot happen
    why 2?
    • you cant split up a species and still assume them to be the same species
    • you have to do something radical to the gene pool to cause the split
  111. males cantbe asexual because sperm cant reproduce on its own
  112. asexual females can mate with each other, one can turn into a male while the other stays a female.it is said they reproduce better but no sex occurs
  113. species need to live with each other b/c it needs male sperm for its species
  114. in general alleles are formed and disappear so quickly that only a few will become fixed
  115. neutral theory only explains at a molecular level
  116. molecular clock
    amount of time between a common ancestor and the differences between them
  117. molecular clock numbers meaning
    the number of differences between the species since being from a common ancestor
  118. synonymous 2
    • only apply to codon protein genes
    • changes the code but not the amino acid
  119. non synonymous 2
    • mutation in DNA that changes the AA
    • causes you to have differences between lineages
  120. how is nonsynonymous support for the neutral theory
    it is more likel;y to be effected by selection when comparing to synonymous
  121. this works well if GF barrier
  122. TMRCA is done when lineage are seperate from each other
  123. TMRCA example would be panama shrimp
  124. ploidy
    set # of X in the genome
  125. to get substitution rate you have to estimate from fossil record