Intro to Oceanography FINAL

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  1. Salinity of Ocean
    Typical ocean salinity is 35 ppt
  2. Salts
    • Over a long period of time does the salinity of the ocean change from ~35ppt?

    – No, even though salinity can build up from erosion, animals take up ions and convert them in to shells and other things which recycle the salts back in to the sediments.

    – Salt spray along coastlines also removes salt. ~3.6 billion metric tons of salt removed annually

    – Oceanic retreat from land leaves salt behind as well.

    • Why is ocean water salty?

    – Salts eroded from the crust of millions of years.

    • How much salt is in the ocean?

    – If dried and spread evenly, it would cover the world at a depth of 500ft.
  3. Why does ice float on water?
    – 9% less dense then water.

    – Due to bond angles.

    • Water has a bond angle of 104.5.

    • Ice has a bond angle of 109.5.

    – Ice takes up 9% more space then water.
  4. Covalent Bonds
    A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.
  5. pH of salt water
    The pH of salt water is about 7-8
  6. Atoms
    building blocks of all matter.
  7. • Processes that decrease salinity?
    – Precipitation

    – Runoff

    – Icebergs (Glacial ice)

    – Sea ice melting
  8. Pycnocline
    Abrupt change of density with depth
  9. How deep must you go to double the pressure?
    – 33ft
  10. • Why is the ocean blue?
    • Reflection from the sky.

    • Water absorbs colors differently depending on their wavelengths.

    • Colors with shorter wavelengths get filtered out first, leaving those with longer wavelengths such as blue
  11. Physical Properties of the Atmosphere
    • Composition:

    – Mostly nitrogen (N2) and Oxygen (O2).

    – Other gases significant for heat trapping properties.
  12. Weather at Wind Belts
    • Lowest portion of circulation cells generate most of the wind belts.

    • Trade winds

    – From subtropical highs to equator.

    – Northeast trades in Northern Hemisphere.

    – Southeast trades in Southern Hemisphere.

    • Prevailing westerlies

    – from 30

    –60 degrees latitude.

    – Blow southwest to northeast in N. Hemisphere.

    • Polar easterlies

    – 60

    –90 degrees latitude.

    Boundaries between wind belts.

    – Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

    – at equator.

    • Regular rain fall

    – Horse latitudes

    – 30 degrees

    • Dry

    – Polar fronts

    – 60 degrees latitude.

    • Regular precipitation
  13. The Coriolis Effect
    • Deflects path of moving object from viewer’s perspective

    – To right in Northern Hemisphere

    – To left in Southern Hemisphere

    • Due to Earth’s rotation.

    • Not a Force!

    – Does not accelerate the moving body.
  14. Hadley Cell
    30 degrees latitude
  15. Albedo
    Albedo, or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo "whiteness" in turn from albus "white," is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface. It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it.
  16. Horse latitudes
    30 degrees • Dry
  17. Weather
    the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
  18. Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
    The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, or the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale for short, classifies hurricanes
  19. Tilt of Earth
    • Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° with respect to ecliptic.

    – Ecliptic

    – plane traced by Earth’s solar orb
  20. Declination
    Angular distance of Sun from equatorial plane
  21. Ocean Gyres
    A gyre in oceanography is any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
  22. Ekman Transport
    • Average movement of seawater under influence of wind.

    • 90 degrees to right of wind in Northern hemisphere.

    • 90 degrees to left of wind in Southern hemisphere.
  23. Upwelling
    • Upwelling

    – Vertical movement of cold, nutrient

    -rich water to surface.

    – High biological productivity.
  24. Sargasso Sea
    The Sargasso Sea is a region in the gyre in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean

    – Circulates around center of North Atlantic Gyre

    – Unique biology

    • Sargassum
  25. N. Atlantic Gyre
    The North Atlantic Gyre, located in the Atlantic Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres. It is a circular system of ocean currents that stretches across the North Atlantic from near the equator almost to Iceland, and from the east coast of North America to the west coasts of Europe and Africa.
  26. • Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    – Also called West Wind Drift and Penguin Gyre

    – Pushed by westerly winds

    • Roaring 40s

    – Only current to completely encircle Earth • Due to lack of land.

    – Moves more water than any other current
  27. Ekman Spiral
    • Surface currents move at an angle to the wind.

    • The Ekman spiral describes speed and direction of seawater flow at different depths.

    • Each successive layer moves increasingly to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.

    – Coriolis effect
  28. • Downwelling
    – Vertical movement of surface water downward in water column.

    – Generally low biological productivity.

    – What benefit?
  29. The North Pacific Gyre
    The North Pacific Gyre, located in the northern Pacific Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres. This gyre covers most of the northern Pacific Ocean.
  30. Crest
    A crest is the point on a wave with the maximum value or upward displacement within a cycle. A trough is the opposite of a crest, so the minimum or lowest point in a cycle.
  31. Three Types of Breakers
    • Spilling

    • Plunging

    • Surging
  32. Shallow-water waves
    – Water depth < 1/20 of wavelength
  33. Wave Height
    • Directly related to wave energy.

    • Wave heights usually less than 2 meters (6.6 feet).

    • Breakers called whitecaps form when wave reaches critical steepness.

    • Beaufort Wind Scale describes appearance of sea surface.

    • USS Ramapo (1933): 152-meters (500 feet) long ship caught in Pacific typhoon

    • Waves 34 meters (112 feet) high
  34. Rogue Waves
    • Rogue waves:

    – Freak waves that come out of nowhere.

    – Created by constructive interference.

    – Formed by the interaction of a wind wave and a swift surface current.

    – Common in southeastern tip of Africa.
  35. Still Water Level
    Average water surface elevation at any instant, excluding local variation due to waves and wave set-up, but including the effects of tides, storm surges and long period seiches
  36. Tsunami
    • “Great wave in harbor”

    • Seismic sea waves

    – Earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes

    • Can travel at speeds close to 500mph.
  37. Period
    the time it takes one full wave—one wavelength—to pass a fixed position.
  38. Internal Waves
    • Associated with pycnocline.

    • Larger than surface waves.

    • Caused by tides, turbidity currents, winds, ships.

    • Possible hazard for submarines.
  39. Constructive interference
    – In-phase wave trains with about the same wavelengths.
  40. Tidal bore
    a true tidal wave. 

    • Wall of water that moves upriver.

    • Caused by an incoming high tide. • Occurs in some low-lying rivers.

    • Can be large enough to surf or raft.
  41. apogee
    Moon furthest from Earth
  42. Bay of Fundy
    The Bay of Fundy is a bay on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine.
  43. Centripetal Force
    • Center-seeking force

    • Tethers Earth and Moon to each other
  44. Neap tides
    – Quarter moons.

    – Tidal range least.

    – Quadrature.
  45. 24 hr 50 min cycle
    Diurnal Tide
  46. Semi Diurnal Tide
    12 hr 25 min cycle
  47. Whirlpools
    A whirlpool is a swirling body of water produced by the meeting of opposing currents. The vast majority of whirlpools are not very powerful.
  48. Barycenter
    between Moon and Earth.
  49. Spring Tides
    a tide just after a new or full moon, when there is the greatest difference between high and low water
  50. jet stream
    a narrow, variable band of very strong, predominantly westerly air currents encircling the globe several miles above the earth. There are typically two or three jet streams in each of the northern and southern hemispheres.
  51. monsoon
    a seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon ), or from the northeast between October and April (the dry monsoon ).the rainy season accompanying the wet monsoon.
  52. El Niño
    El Niño is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that periodically develops off the Pacific coast of South America.
  53. Only current to circumnavigate the globe
    Arctic circumpolar current
  54. weather at horse latitudes
    dry with little wind
  55. Ferrel Cell
    convection cell from 30 to 60 degrees
  56. Length of lunar day
    25 hrs 50 min
  57. Result of too much carbon in the ocean
    Ocean acidification
  58. wave created by seismic activity
  59. Western gyres are _____ and_____ than
    faster, deeper than eastern gyres
  60. Two forces causing tides
    Centripetal force and gravity
  61. tilt of the earth
  62. Period
    Time between 2 successive waves
  63. waves created by different densities
    internal wave
  64. 2 opposing currents create
  65. Location of great garbage patch
    North Pacific gyre
  66. Most dense body of water
    Antartic Bottom water
  67. In phase waves coming together
  68. Angular distance of orbital plane to equator
  69. Common center of mass
  70. Ph of Ocean
  71. Bond between atoms of a single water molecule
    Covalesent Bonds
  72. 9% less dense than water
  73. Three types of breaks
    plunging, spilling, surging.
  74. Top of wave
  75. Tide with largest tidal range
    Spring Tide
  76. True tidal wave
    Tidal Bore
  77. Average salinity of ocean water
    35 ppt
  78. Deflecting air masses left or right
    Coriolis effect
  79. Disruption of the walker cell
    El nino event
  80. Large waves created by swift currents
    Rogue Waves
  81. 2 primary salts
    sodium, and chloride
  82. 4 boundaries of North Atlantic Gyre
    Canary, Equatorial, Gulf, N. Atlantic
  83. Term for 1/4 moon and neep tides
  84. Reflective of a surface
  85. Most common gas in atmosphere nitrogen
  86. Circular pattern in major ocean basins
  87. Weather at maritime tropical area
    warm and wet
  88. Average movement of water with the wind
    Eckman transport
  89. Narrow fast easterly wind
  90. when moon is furthest from earth
  91. three factors that wave height is dependent on
    wind duration, speed, fetch
  92. surface water pushed up
    up welling
  93. location with largest tidal range
    Bay of Fundy
  94. ratio at which a wave breaks
  95. sea surrounded by four ocean currents
    Sargasso sea
  96. The force that pulls an orbiting body toward the center of that orbit is called
  97. Convection cell from 0 to 30 lat
    Hadley Cell
  98. Fish that uses tides for reproduction
  99. Atom
    Building block of all matter
  100. Process that decreases salinity
    Precipitation, runoff, ice melting
  101. Average water surface level
    Water surface level
Card Set:
Intro to Oceanography FINAL
2014-04-30 23:49:34
Intro to Oceanography Final
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