A hearing loss that occurs from a dysfunction of the outer or middle ear. it can usually be treated with medicine or surgery. it is a deficit of LOUDNESS only.
A hearing loss that is a dysfunction of the inner ear or auditory nerve, usually permenant and untreatable. It results in loudness deficit and distorted hearing
With a __ hearing loss the Middle ear structures are intact, but the message does not effectively reach the brain. Hearing aids should be beneficial.
A __ Hearing loss is a combination of conductive and sensorinueral hearing loss.
__ are disorders caused by an external source
__ means Genetic
__ means present at birth (born with hearing loss)
__ means patient had language before acquiring a hearing loss
__ means patient had hearing problems prior to attaining language
__ means prior to birht; during fetal period.
__ means during birth something happened.
__ means after birth
__ means pain. The patient reports__.
__ means discharge
__ means sudden onset/ short duration
__ means long duration... it never goes away
___ means changing in degree over time
An Outer ear malformation known as "small ear".
It is congenital deformity of the pinna that can be unilateral or bilateral.
__ occurs in 1 out of about 8000-10,000 births
Microtia has a __ hearing loss and its treatment is__.
surgery to form new pinna
Group __ of Microtia:
a slightly small ear with identifiable structures and a small but present external ear canal (does not necessarily have to have a hearing loss)
Group __ of Microtia:
A partial or hemi-ear with a closed off or stenotic (narrowing) external ear canal.
Group __ of Microtia:
absence of the external ear and an absence of the external ear canal and eardrum.
__ means total absence of pinna.
__ is an outer ear malformation that is common among boxers and wrestlers.
Cauliflower ear/ hematoma auris
__ is when the external portion of the ear suffers a blow. a blodd clot or other fluid may collect under the perichondrium (skin).
__ is an outer ear malformation that leads to a formation of fibrous tissue in the overlying skin. WHen this happens, the outer ear becomes permanently swollen and deformed, resembling a cauliflower.
Hematoma auris may cause a __ hearing loss
___ atresia is 6 times for common than __ atresia
__ is an outer ear malformation that has a closed off ear canal/ no hole
if cochlea is normal, patient will have maximum __ hearing loss
Treatment for atresia
surgery to make ear canal
__ is a small diameter ear canal, usually congenital, and typically NO hearing loss.
It is seen in down syndrome.
If stenosis occurs with no other issues then there will be ___
no hearing loss
__ is an obstruction of benign bony growths in the EAC.
__ is called "surfer's Ear" due to its prevelence among cold water sufers.
It results in a minimal hearing loss.
__ is an infection is the External Ear canal. It is an inflammation of the EAC
Otitis Externa has a __ hearing loss
__ means there is a hole in the TM
__ opens up middle ear space to direct intrusion from elements. they typically heal on their own.
There is usually a __ hearing loss depending on the size of the perforation.
__ is white plaques on the TM (abnormal deposits of calcium). It is casued by changes in the connective tissue layer following disease
Tympanosclerosis typically has __ hearing loss
Inflammatory tissue changes in nasopharynx, physical difference in the anatomy, and growth of a mass in the nasopharynx all cause __
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction can lead to a __ hearing loss
__ is abnormal skin growth in the middle ear behind the eardrum.
__ often develop as cysts or pouches that shed layers of old skin
__ result in a conductive hearing loss and can increase in size and destroy the surrounding delicate cones of the middle ear.
Congenital cholesteatomas arise from__
embryonal epithelial cells
__ is an inflammation or infection in the middle ear space. Typically fluid will be present in the normally air-filled ME. Fluid may or may not be infected with bacteria.
Type of Otitis Media: an inflammation of the eardrum without fluidin the middle ear.
Otitis Media without effusion
Type of Otitis Media: is the presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of ear infection.
Otitis Media with effusion
Otitis Media with effusion is sometimes called__
Serous Otitis Media (SOM)
Type of Otitis Media: Occurs when there is fluid in middle earaccompanied by the rapid onset of signs and symptomsof middle ear infection-usually infected fluid.
Acute Otitis Media
Type of Otitis Media: Occurs when infection persists. this can cause ongoing damage to the middle ear and eardrum.
Chronic Otitis Media
Type of fluid/Effusion: Fluids leak from membranes due to inflammation in ME space
Type of Fluid/Effusion: Negative pressure pulls fluid from cells in lining of ME.
Type of Fluid/Effusion: When resulting fluid contains pus, it is referred to as__.
__ is the most common diagnosis in sick children in the US
A cold or other respiratory infection can lead to __.
__ is a middle ear disorder when the ossicles become fused together into an immovable mass.
Otosclerosis is the formation of a new spongy bone usually over the ___
Otosclerosis usually happens after__ and has a __ hearing loss
Otosclerosis may be __
A person who has one parent with Otosclerosis has a __% chance of developing the disorder. If both parents have it, the risk goes up __%
Who are most at risk for Otosclerosis?
white, middle-aged women
Three Treatment options for Otosclerosis:
1.) do nothing
2.) Hearing Aids
3.) Surgical treatment-stapedectomy
__ is a very rare middle ear disorder that consists of temporal bone fracture and tympanic membrane perforations.
There will always be a hearing loss when the ossices are __
A middle ear disorder that is seen in adult women. It consists of a slow growing benign tumor that may result in aural fullness.
__ disease is an abnormality of the inner ear. it usually affects only one ear and occurs in episodes.
The actual pathology of __ Disease is endolymphatichydrops: has to do with fluid build up in semicircular canals and fluids in inner ear.
Meniere's Disease has a __ hearing loss.
low frequency Sensorineural
What are the 4 symptoms of Meniere's Disease?
1.) Vertigo or severe dizziness
2.) Tinnitus or a roaring sound in the ears
3.) Fluctuating hearing loss
4.) Tend to have this sensation os pressure and or pain in affected ear.
treatment for Meniere's Disease (4)
-reduce the body's retention of fluids through dietary changes
-medication to suppress vertigo
-endolymphatic shunt-used to drain some fluid
Hearing loss from noise exposure has two theories:
___ -affects the steriocilla of the hair cells ___ -overstimulated ear can't maintain appropriate chemical balances.
Hearing loss from noise exposure is referred to as ___ or ___
Noise-Induced Hearing loss
A NIHL is a ___ hearing loss, typically 4000 Notch.
__ is an age related hearing loss; the cumulative effect of aging on hearing. the sensory cells cannot be repaired.
Presbycusis is a ___ hearing loss, typically at higher frequencies.
Treatment for Presbycusis
Hearing aids. patient will still hear static, but the louder volume will help them hear better.
Presbycusis is an __ disorder
__ is the capacity for certain medications to cause hearing loss. It is typically associated with balance and tinnitus
Ototoxicity has a __ hearing loss, but hearing loss may resolve with cessation of medication.
5 categories of drugs: __- used in chemotherapy __-mycin drugs __- used to promote excretion of fluid __- asprin; when stop huge dose of aspirin hearing will get better __- quinine
__ is a unilateral hearing loss that develops instantaneously often upon waking up in the morning.
Sudden Onset of SNHL
Sudden onset of SNHL is also referred to as___
Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL)
What are the 3 possible causes of Sudden Onset of SNHL?
-an inner ear membrane rupture
___ is an inner ear membrane rupture.
In a lot of cases Sudden Onset of SNHL is a ___ hearing loss, but if there is just a certain amount of hearing loss it will be aided.
__ is inflammatory conditions that occur when immune system causes body to attack its own tissues. It specifically attacks the inner ear.
Autoimmune Inner Ear Disorder (AIED)
AIED has a __, __, and __ hearing loss.
AIED is treated with ___.
__ is an inner ear disorder that results from sudden changes in pressure leading to the rupture of round or oval window.
In Barotrauma the rupture leads to a __ leak
Barotrauma has a __ hearing loss and can be treated by...
patching the hole, if not then hearing loss will be permanent.
__ is an inner ear disorder. the ear normally uses small crystals to determine the direction of gravity. In a disease state these crystals come lose and float around inside the inner ear.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
In BPPV the crystal particles cause the sensation of ___ every time they are disturbed by head motion.
What are the 5 characteristics of BPPV
-Nausea, but rarely vomiting
-can be brought on by certain positions
- eye movements called nystagmus
it usually goes away by itself within a few weeks. Over time, your brain will likely get used to the confusing signals it gets from your inner ear.
__ is an infection known as "German Measles". it is a progressive and significant disability.
Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a characteristic of __ syndrome.
CRS usually has a __ hearing loss and has other intellectual disabilities.
__ is the most common viral infection in the human fetus and is a member of the herpes family.
Transmission of CMV can occur in 3 ways:
from cervix of infected mom
transmitted in infected mother's milk
Adults withCMV are usually ____
__ is an infection from a parasite in domestic and wild animals.
Toxoplasmosis has mostly ___ infections
__ consists of complications such as retinal disease and mental handicap.
__ is an STD that an infected other may transmit to the fetus.
__ % of patients with syphilis are asymptomatic at birth.
Syphilis is treated with ...
penicillin during pregnancy
Syphilis can cause a __ __ or __ SNHL.
___ has a 10-40% risk of transmission from infected mother to fetus.
HIV complications are __ and __
With HIV __ is secondary to ototoxic drugs.
__ is transmitted through direct contact with infected individual. During birth process with mother with an active infection.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
HSV recommends a __ delivery
HSV complications involve the __
__ is when the oxygen supply to baby compromised.
Prematurity is determined by __.
__ is a syndrome typically passed after birth; secretion through bowel movement, will be very thick and black. sometimes child will do this in utero which is not a good thing.
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)
To prevent MAS..
must be suction before first breath if notice staining.
Complications of MAS
SNHL and a lot of times if there is a lot of Meconium there is intellectual problems.
__ is the most common disorder of pematurity
__ is bleeding in the brain or within the skull.
Intracranial Hemorrhage is categorized based on ___.
__ is a complication of Intracranial Hemorrhage.
__ is also known as jaundice. Bilirubin is a by-product of red blood cell breakdown.
In Hyperbilirubinemia __ is transported to the liver where it is detoxified. It can become toxic to the CNS.
Hyperbilirubinemia can result in yellow tone to sin and white of eyes which is called ___.
The treatment for Hyperbilirubinemia is...
phototherapy or exchange transfusion of red blood cells.
___ is an autosomal dominate inherited syndrome. It effets Craniofacial, limbs, growth, and CNS.
Apert Syndrome has the characteristic of __ / "___" hands along with speech and language delay
Apert syndrom Hearing loss:
conductive because of the structures. Ossicles, ET, etc. this will not be correctable. This will be a permanent hearing loss.
Define Charge Association
Coloboma (has to do with the eyes)
Atresia Choanae (nasal passages)
Retarded growth and development
Ear Anomalities (CHL or SNHL)
__ is a congenital syndrome where most of the signs and symptoms may be recognized at birth or shortly thereafter.
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
Low birth weight, slow growth and small stature, small head size, thin eye brows, long eyelashes, low-set ears, short upturned nose, thin, down turned lips, and hearing loss are all characteristics on __ Syndrome
In CdLS the characteristic that sticks out the most is the __
How is a diagnosis of CdLS made and what does the evaluation include?
It is based on signs and symptoms observed through an evaluation by a physician. The evaluation includes: medical history, physical examination,and lab test.
Bulging eyes, Malocclusion, abnormal head shape,stenotic ear canals,normal cognitive development, and Conductive hearing loss are all characteristics of ___ syndrome
Characteristics of Down Syndrome include: (6) and has a __ hearing loss.
Goldenhar Syndrome has characteristics of __ __ and __ along with auricular and vertebral.
Mixed hearing loss
__ Syndrome includes: CNS involvement, growth, cardiac, craniofacial-small, close set eyes, thin upper lip, smooth phitrum, and a CHL
__ Syndrome includes: thyroid goiter and profound SNHL. Hearing loss is progressive in about 15% of patients. The majority of patients present with bilateral moderate to sever HL, with some residual hearing in low frequencies. Ct scan reveals that most patients have Mondini deformity or enlarged vestibular aqueducts. It is typically not diagnosed until later in life.
__ is described as a syndrome with air way obstructions, small lower jaw, posterior tongue placement, and cleft of soft palate.
Pierre Robin Sequence
WHy is Pierre Robin Sequence called a sequence?
because it results from a series of events that occur early in pregnancy.
The events of Pierre Robin Sequence occur in a cascade fashion; one leading to the other:
1st the defect of the fetus's lower jaw
2nd abnormal placement of tongue
3rd clefting of the palate and/or lip
Pierre Robin Sequence has 6 effects on hearing:
conductive hearing loss
external auditory canal
some anomalies of the inner ear can occur.
__ syndrome includes facial malformations and cleft palate and microtia. The facial features are bilateral and symmetrical. Ossicular malformations are common. cleft palate. It has a CHL
Usher syndrome has a prevalence of __ per 100,000 population
Usher syndrome affects ___ deaf and blind persons in the US.
Usher syndrome has a __ hearing loss and __ (Hereditary eyes disease)
Usher syndrome subtype:
__- congenital bilateral profound HL and absent vestibular function
Usher Syndrome Subtype: ___- moderate losses and normal vestibular function