COMD 4190

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COMD 4190
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2014-05-04 15:59:00
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Kdalbor COMD 4190
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  1. A hearing loss that occurs from a dysfunction of the outer or middle ear.
    it can usually be treated with medicine or surgery.
    it is a deficit of LOUDNESS only.
    Conductive
  2. A hearing loss that is a dysfunction of the inner ear or auditory nerve, usually permenant and untreatable.
    It results in loudness deficit and distorted hearing
    Sensori-neural
  3. With a __ hearing loss the Middle ear structures are intact, but the message does not effectively reach the brain. Hearing aids should be beneficial.
    Sensori-neural
  4. A __ Hearing loss is a combination of conductive and sensorinueral hearing loss.
    Mixed
  5. __ are disorders caused by an external source
    Exogenous
  6. __ means Genetic
    Endogenous
  7. __ means present at birth (born with hearing loss)
    Congenital
  8. __ means patient had language before acquiring a hearing loss
    Post-lingual
  9. __ means patient had hearing problems prior to attaining language
    Pre-lingual
  10. __ means prior to birht; during fetal period.
    Prenatal
  11. __ means during birth something happened.
    Perinatal
  12. __ means after birth
    Post-natal
  13. __ means pain. The patient reports__.
    Otalgia
  14. __ means discharge
    Otorrhoea
  15. __ means sudden onset/ short duration
    Acute
  16. __ means long duration... it never goes away
    Chronic
  17. ___ means changing in degree over time
    Fluctuating
  18. An Outer ear malformation known as "small ear".
    It is congenital deformity of the pinna that can be unilateral or bilateral.
    Microtia
  19. __ occurs in 1 out of about 8000-10,000 births
    Microtia
  20. Microtia has a __ hearing loss and its treatment is__.
    • Conductive
    • surgery to form new pinna
  21. Group __ of Microtia:
    a slightly small ear with identifiable structures and a small but present external ear canal (does not necessarily have to have a hearing loss)
    one
  22. Group __ of Microtia:
    A partial or hemi-ear with a closed off or stenotic (narrowing) external ear canal.
    Two
  23. Group __ of Microtia:
    absence of the external ear and an absence of the external ear canal and eardrum.
    three
  24. __ means total absence of pinna.
    Anotia
  25. __ is an outer ear malformation that is common among boxers and wrestlers.
    Cauliflower ear/ hematoma auris
  26. __ is when the external portion of the ear suffers a blow. a blodd clot or other fluid may collect under the perichondrium (skin).
    Hematoma auris
  27. __ is an outer ear malformation that leads to a formation of fibrous tissue in the overlying skin. WHen this happens, the outer ear becomes permanently swollen and deformed, resembling a cauliflower.
    Hemtoma auris
  28. Hematoma auris may cause a __ hearing loss
    Conductive
  29. ___ atresia is 6 times for common than __ atresia
    • unilateral
    • bilateral
  30. __ is an outer ear malformation that has a closed off ear canal/ no hole
    atresia
  31. Atresia:
    if cochlea is normal, patient will have maximum __ hearing loss
    Conductive
  32. Treatment for atresia
    surgery to make ear canal
  33. __ is a small diameter ear canal, usually congenital, and typically NO hearing loss.
    It is seen in down syndrome.
    Stenosis
  34. If stenosis occurs with no other issues then there will be ___
    no hearing loss
  35. __ is an obstruction of benign bony growths  in the EAC.
    Exostosis
  36. __ is called "surfer's Ear" due to its prevelence among cold water sufers.
    It results in a minimal hearing loss.
    Exostosis
  37. __ is an infection is the External Ear canal. It is an inflammation of the EAC
    Otitis Externa
  38. Otitis Externa has a __ hearing loss
    conductive
  39. __ means there is a hole in the TM
    Perforations
  40. __ opens up middle ear space to direct intrusion from elements. they typically heal on their own.
    Perforations
  41. There is usually a __ hearing loss depending on the size of the perforation.
    Conductive
  42. __ is white plaques on the TM (abnormal deposits of calcium). It is casued by changes in the connective tissue layer following disease
    Tympanosclerosis
  43. Tympanosclerosis typically has __ hearing loss
    no
  44. Inflammatory tissue changes in nasopharynx, physical difference in the anatomy, and growth of a mass in the nasopharynx all cause __
    Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
  45. Eustachian Tube Dysfunction can lead to a __ hearing loss
    Conductive
  46. __ is abnormal skin growth in the middle ear behind the eardrum.
    Cholesteatoma
  47. __ often develop as cysts or pouches that shed layers of old skin
    Cholesteatomas
  48. __ result in a conductive hearing loss and can increase in size and destroy the surrounding delicate cones of the middle ear.
    Cholesteatomas
  49. Congenital cholesteatomas arise from__
    embryonal epithelial cells
  50. __ is an inflammation or infection in the middle ear space. Typically fluid will be present in the normally air-filled ME. Fluid may or may not be infected with bacteria.
    Otitis Media
  51. Type of Otitis Media:
    an inflammation of the eardrum without fluid in the middle ear.
    Otitis Media without effusion
  52. Type of Otitis Media:
    is the presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of ear infection.
    Otitis Media with effusion
  53. Otitis Media with effusion is sometimes called__
    Serous Otitis Media (SOM)
  54. Type of Otitis Media:
    Occurs when there is fluid in middle ear accompanied by the rapid onset of signs and symptoms of middle ear infection-usually infected fluid.
    Acute Otitis Media
  55. Type of Otitis Media:
    Occurs when infection persists. this can cause ongoing damage to the middle ear and eardrum.
    Chronic Otitis Media
  56. Type of fluid/Effusion:
    Fluids leak from membranes due to inflammation in ME space
    Exudate
  57. Type of Fluid/Effusion:
    Negative pressure pulls fluid from cells in lining of ME.
    Transudate
  58. Type of Fluid/Effusion:
    When resulting fluid contains pus, it is referred to as__.
    Purulent-glue ear
  59. __ is the most common diagnosis in sick children in the US
    Otitis Media
  60. A cold or other respiratory infection can lead to __.
    Otitis Media
  61. __ is a middle ear disorder when the ossicles become fused together into an immovable mass.
    Otosclerosis
  62. Otosclerosis is the formation of a new spongy bone usually over the ___
    Stapedial footplate
  63. Otosclerosis usually happens after__ and has a __ hearing loss
    • puberty
    • Bilateral
  64. Otosclerosis may be __
    Hereditary
  65. A person who has one parent with Otosclerosis has a __% chance of developing the disorder.
    If both parents have it, the risk goes up __%
    • 25
    • 50
  66. Who are most at risk for Otosclerosis?
    white, middle-aged women
  67. Three Treatment options for Otosclerosis:
    • 1.) do nothing
    • 2.) Hearing Aids
    • 3.) Surgical treatment-stapedectomy
  68. __ is a very rare middle ear disorder that consists of temporal bone fracture and tympanic membrane perforations.
    Ossicular Disarticulation
  69. There will always be a hearing loss when the ossices are __
    disarticulated
  70. A middle ear disorder that is seen in adult women. It consists of a slow growing benign tumor that may result in aural fullness.
    Glomus Tumor
  71. __ disease is an abnormality of the inner ear. it usually affects only one ear and occurs in episodes. 
    Meniere's Disease
  72. The actual pathology of __ Disease is endolymphatichydrops: has to do with fluid build up in semicircular canals and fluids in inner ear. 
    Meniere's
  73. Meniere's Disease has a __ hearing loss.
    low frequency Sensorineural
  74. What are the 4 symptoms of Meniere's Disease?
    • 1.) Vertigo or severe dizziness
    • 2.) Tinnitus or a roaring sound in the ears
    • 3.) Fluctuating hearing loss
    • 4.) Tend to have this sensation os pressure and or pain in affected ear.
  75. treatment for Meniere's Disease (4)
    • -no cure
    • -reduce the body's retention of fluids through dietary changes
    • -medication to suppress vertigo
    • -endolymphatic shunt-used to drain some fluid
  76. Hearing loss from noise exposure has two theories:
    ___ -affects the steriocilla of the hair cells

    ___ -overstimulated ear can't maintain appropriate chemical balances.
    • Mechanical
    • Biochemical
  77. Hearing loss from noise exposure is referred to as ___ or ___
    • acoustic trauma
    • Noise-Induced Hearing loss
  78. A NIHL is  a ___ hearing loss, typically 4000 Notch.
    Sensorineural
  79. __ is an age related hearing loss; the cumulative effect of aging on hearing. 
    the sensory cells cannot be repaired.
    Presbycusis
  80. Presbycusis is a ___ hearing loss, typically at higher frequencies.
    Sensorinueral
  81. Treatment for Presbycusis
    Hearing aids. patient will still hear static, but the louder volume will help them hear better.
  82. Presbycusis is an __ disorder
    inner ear
  83. __ is the capacity for certain medications to cause hearing loss. It is typically associated with balance and tinnitus
    Ototoxicity
  84. Ototoxicity has a __ hearing loss, but hearing loss may resolve with cessation of medication.
    Sensorineural
  85. 5 categories of drugs:
    __- used in chemotherapy
    __-mycin drugs
    __- used to promote excretion of fluid
    __- asprin; when stop huge dose of aspirin hearing will get better
    __- quinine
    • Antineoplastic drugs
    • aminoglycoside antibiotics
    • Loop diuretics
    • analgesics
    • Antimalarial drugs
  86. __ is a unilateral hearing loss that develops instantaneously often upon waking up in the morning.
    Sudden Onset of SNHL
  87. Sudden onset of SNHL is also referred to as___
    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL)
  88. What are the 3 possible causes of Sudden Onset of SNHL?
    • -viral infection
    • -vascular insult
    • -an inner ear membrane rupture
  89. ___ is an inner ear membrane rupture.
    Fistula
  90. In a lot of cases Sudden Onset of SNHL is a ___ hearing loss, but if there is just a certain amount of hearing loss it will be aided.
    profound
  91. __ is inflammatory conditions that occur when immune system causes body to attack its own tissues. It specifically attacks the inner ear. 
    Autoimmune Inner Ear Disorder (AIED)
  92. AIED has a __, __, and __ hearing loss.
    • Bilateral
    • fluctuating
    • progressive SNHL
  93. AIED is treated with ___.
    Steroids
  94. __ is an inner ear disorder that results from sudden changes in pressure leading to the rupture of round or oval window. 
    Barotrauma
  95. In Barotrauma the rupture leads to a __ leak
    Perilymph
  96. Barotrauma has a __ hearing loss and can be treated by...
    • SNHL
    • patching the hole, if not then hearing loss will be permanent.
  97. __ is an inner ear disorder. the ear normally uses small crystals to determine the direction of gravity. In a disease state these crystals come lose and float around inside the inner ear.
    Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
  98. In BPPV the crystal particles cause the sensation of ___ every time they are disturbed by head motion.
    Vertigo
  99. What are the 5 characteristics of BPPV
    • -Intense vertigo
    • -Nausea, but rarely vomiting
    • -can be brought on by certain positions
    • -short duration
    • - eye movements called nystagmus
  100. BPPV treatment
    it usually goes away by itself within a few weeks. Over time, your brain will likely get used to the confusing signals it gets from your inner ear.
  101. __ is an infection known as "German Measles". it is a progressive and significant disability.
    Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)
  102. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a characteristic of __ syndrome.
    CRS
  103. CRS usually has a __ hearing loss and has other intellectual disabilities.
    profound
  104. __ is the most common viral infection in the human fetus and is a member of the herpes family.
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  105. Transmission of CMV can occur in 3 ways:
    Prenatally-
    Perinatally-
    Postnatally-
    • through placenta
    • from cervix of infected mom
    • transmitted in infected mother's milk
  106. Adults with CMV are usually ____
    asymptomatic
  107. __ is an infection from a parasite in domestic and wild animals.
    Toxoplasmosis
  108. Toxoplasmosis has mostly ___ infections
    asymptomatic
  109. __ consists of complications such as retinal disease and mental handicap.
    Toxoplasmosis
  110. __ is an STD that an infected other may transmit to the fetus.
    Syphilis
  111. __ % of patients with syphilis  are asymptomatic at birth.
    60
  112. Syphilis is treated with ...
    penicillin during pregnancy
  113. Syphilis can cause a __ __ or __ SNHL.
    • moderate
    • severe
    • profound
  114. ___ has a 10-40% risk of transmission from infected mother to fetus.
    HIV
  115. HIV complications are __ and __
    • growth retardation
    • premature birth
  116. With HIV __ is secondary to ototoxic drugs.
    SNHL
  117. __ is transmitted through direct contact with infected individual. During birth process with mother with an active infection.
    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
  118. HSV recommends a __ delivery
    Caesarian section
  119. HSV complications involve the __
    CNS
  120. __ is when the oxygen supply to baby compromised.
    Anoxia
  121. Prematurity is determined by __.
    weight
  122. __ is a syndrome typically passed after birth; secretion through bowel movement, will be very thick and black. sometimes child will do this in utero which is not a good thing.
    Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)
  123. To prevent MAS..
    must be suction before first breath if notice staining.
  124. Complications of MAS
    SNHL and a lot of times if there is a lot of Meconium there is intellectual problems.
  125. __ is the most common disorder of pematurity
    Intracranial Hemorrhage
  126. __ is bleeding in the brain or within the skull.
    Intracranial Hemorrhage
  127. Intracranial Hemorrhage is categorized based on ___.
    severity
  128. __ is a complication of Intracranial Hemorrhage.
    Hydrocephalus
  129. __ is also known as jaundice. Bilirubin is a by-product of red blood cell breakdown. 
    Hyperbilirubinemia
  130. In Hyperbilirubinemia __ is transported to the liver where it is detoxified. It can become toxic to the CNS.
    Bilirubin
  131. Hyperbilirubinemia can result in yellow tone to sin and white of eyes which is called ___.
    Jaundice
  132. The treatment for Hyperbilirubinemia is...
    phototherapy or exchange transfusion of red blood cells.
  133. ___ is an autosomal dominate inherited syndrome. It effets Craniofacial, limbs, growth, and CNS. 
    Apert
  134. Apert Syndrome has the characteristic of __ /   "___" hands along with speech and language delay
    • syndactyly 
    • Mitten
  135. Apert syndrom Hearing loss:
    conductive because of the structures. Ossicles, ET, etc. this will not be correctable. This will be a permanent hearing loss.
  136. Define Charge Association
    • Coloboma (has to do with the eyes)
    • Heart Anomalities
    • Atresia Choanae (nasal passages)
    • Retarded growth and development
    • Genital Hypooplasia
    • Ear Anomalities (CHL or SNHL)
  137. __ is a congenital syndrome where most of the signs and symptoms may be recognized at birth or shortly thereafter. 
    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
  138. Low birth weight, slow growth and small stature, small head size, thin eye brows, long eyelashes, low-set ears, short upturned nose, thin, down turned lips, and hearing loss are all characteristics on __ Syndrome
    CdLS
  139. In CdLS the characteristic that sticks out the most is the __
    eyes
  140. How is a diagnosis of CdLS made and what does the evaluation include?
    It is based on signs and symptoms observed through an evaluation by a physician. The evaluation includes: medical history, physical examination,and lab test.
  141. Bulging eyes, Malocclusion, abnormal head shape,stenotic ear canals,normal cognitive development, and Conductive hearing loss are all characteristics of ___ syndrome
    Crouzon
  142. Characteristics of Down Syndrome include: (6) and has a __ hearing loss.
    • CNS
    • Facial appearance
    • growth
    • cardiac
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Limbs
    • Permanent CHL
  143. Goldenhar Syndrome has characteristics of __ __ and __ along with auricular and vertebral.
    • Hemifacial
    • Mixed hearing loss
    • Ocular abnomalities
  144. __ Syndrome includes: CNS involvement, growth, cardiac, craniofacial-small, close set eyes, thin upper lip, smooth phitrum, and a CHL
    Fetal Alcohol
  145. __ Syndrome includes: thyroid goiter and profound SNHL. Hearing loss is progressive in about 15% of patients. The majority of patients present with bilateral moderate to sever HL, with some residual hearing in low frequencies. Ct scan reveals that most patients have Mondini deformity or enlarged vestibular aqueducts. It is typically not diagnosed until later in life.
    Pendred
  146. __ is described as a syndrome with air way obstructions, small lower jaw, posterior tongue placement, and cleft of soft palate.
    Pierre Robin Sequence
  147. WHy is Pierre Robin Sequence called a sequence?
    because it results from a series of events that occur early in pregnancy.
  148. The events of Pierre Robin Sequence occur in a cascade fashion; one leading to the other:
    • 1st the defect of the fetus's lower jaw
    • 2nd abnormal placement of tongue
    • 3rd clefting of the palate and/or lip
  149. Pierre Robin Sequence has 6 effects on hearing:
    • otitis media
    • auricular anomalies
    • conductive hearing loss
    • external auditory canal
    • atresia
    • some anomalies of the inner ear can occur.
  150. __ syndrome includes facial malformations and cleft palate and microtia. The facial features are bilateral and symmetrical. Ossicular malformations are common. cleft palate. It has a CHL
    Treacher Collins
  151. Usher syndrome has a prevalence of __ per 100,000 population
    3.5
  152. Usher syndrome affects ___ deaf and blind persons in the US.
    1600
  153. Usher syndrome has a __ hearing loss and __ (Hereditary eyes disease)
    • Sensorineural
    • Retinitis pigmentosa
  154. Usher syndrome subtype:
    __- 
    congenital bilateral profound HL and absent vestibular function
    Type 1
  155. Usher Syndrome Subtype:
    ___- moderate losses and normal vestibular function
    Type 2
  156. Usher Syndrome Subgroup:
    ___ - progressive HL and variable vestibular function.
    Type 3
  157. Waardenburg Syndrome accounts for __% of childhood hearing impairment.
    3
  158. __ is the most common form of inheritable congenital deafness.
    Waardenburg Syndrome
  159. Waardenburg Syndrom has a ___ or __ hearing loss
    • Unilateral
    • bilateral SNHL
  160. Waardenburg Syndrom has pigmentary features that include:__ , ___ , and ___
    • white forelock
    • heterochromia
    • premature graying

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