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what disease has these characteristics:progressive memory loss,impaired thinking, neuropsychiatric symptoms, inability to perform routine tasks of daily living
Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's
the degeneration of neurons early in hippocampus and then later in the cerebral cortex. Also reduced cholinergic transmission.
Risk factors for Alzheimer's
- advancing age
- family history
- head injury
- low educational level
- high levels of homocysteine
- nicotine in cigarette smoke
Symptoms of Alzheimer's (beginning)
- memory loss
- feeling disoriented
- impaired judgement
- personality changes
- difficulty with self care
- wandering, pacing, agitation, screaming, inability to recognize family members
- inability to communicate
Later symptoms of Alzheimer's
- loss of speech
- loss of appetite
- loss of bladder and bowel control
- total dependence on caregiver
when do symptoms begin to show for Alzheimer's
life expectancy from symptom onset
How to diagnose Alzheimer's
- age and clinical evaluation
- can only definitively diagnose through autopsy
Treatment for Alzheimer's
drug therapy for Alzheimer's
- goal is to treat the symptoms
- none of them are very effective
How much time can you buy by using drugs for Alzheimer's?
Types of drugs used in Alzheimer's
neuronal receptor blocker and cholinesterase inhibitors
Effect of cholinesterase inhibitors of Alzheimer's
delays the progression of disease by preventing the breakdown of ACh
Negative side effect of Tacrine
Adverse effects of Cholinesterase inhibitors
- Liver injury
How do you start cholinesterase inhibitors on a patient?
start on a low dose so that they get used to the side effects and then gradually increase dose
what type of drug is memantine?
a NMDA receptor antagonist
Adverse effects of NMDA
How can NSAIDs help prevent Alzheimer's?
NSAIDs prevents inflamation and since Alzheimer's is an inflammatory process, it can help prevent the disease