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Common symptoms of psychotic disorders
- disturbances of reality and perception
- impaired cognitive functions
- mood disturbances
Age of onset of Scizophrenia
symptoms of schizophrenia
- impaired rational thinking
- management of emotions
- decision making
- social relations
what is a delusion?
a belief not supported by science of culture
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
- reality distortions (illusions)
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia
- emotional unresponsiveness
- emotional and social withdrawal
Causes of Schizophrenia
- No known cause
- genetic factors might contribute
- developmental factors
- environmental factors
main drug used for Schizophrenia
Two types of antipsychotic drugs
typical and atypical
Purpose of typical antipsychotics
- alleviate positive symptoms
- binds to 70-80% of D2 dopamine receptors
Purpose of atypical antipsychotics
- block less receptors (40-60%)
- alleviate both positive and negative symptoms
- Also block 70-90% 5-HT2A serotonin receptors
(General) Side effects of typical antipsychotic drugs
- salivate, lacrimate (tears), urinate, deficate, perspirate
- makes you move funny
which is more expensive? Typical or Atypical
Which type of drug makes you fat and have high cholesterol?
What are the major side effect of clozapine?
seizures and agranulocytosis , moderate to severe weight gain
What is a major side effect of risperidone
What is the mesolimbic function of dopamine?
emotions , reward
What is the nigrostriatal function of dopamine?
Tuberoinfundibular function of dopamine?
What does haloperidol do?
- blocks postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors
- and mainly alleviates positive symptoms
What is an extrapyramidal symptom?
side effects such as akinesia (inability to initiate movement) and akathisia (inability to remain motionless)
What is tardive Dyskinesia?
involuntary movements of face and extremities
adverse effects of haloperidol?
extrapyramidal symptoms similar to parkinsons disease and neuroleptic malignant syndrome
How to treat neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by haloperidol
Immediate medial intervention of bromocryptine( DA agonist) and dantrolene (muscle relaxant)
when do you use Clozapine?
when the other drugs don't work (1/3 of people start to get better)
Why is clozapine not used as first line drug?
the bad side effects of agranlocytosis (you have to go in for blood tests every week for 6 weeks)
why is clozapine a "dirty drug"?
because it binds to over a dozen receptors and other targets
How many people with recover from a acute psychotic episode and require no further drug therapy?
only a small minority
What percent of schizo attempt suicide?