Vocabulary: Chapter 16-19

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texasgrl1978
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272576
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Vocabulary: Chapter 16-19
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2014-05-02 12:43:40
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respiratory system
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A&P vocab
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  1. Small sac or pouch; usually a tiny air sac in the lungs through which gases are
    exchanged between the outside air and the blood; tooth socket
    alveolus
  2. Microscopic brand of a bronchus
    bronchiole
  3. Large air passageway in the lung
    bronchus
  4. Receptor that responds to chemicals in body fluid
    chemoreceptors
  5. The ease with which the lungs and thorax can be expanded.
    compliance
  6. Dome-shaped muscle under the lungs that flattens during inhalation; separating
    membrane or structure
    diaphragm
  7. Leaf-shaped cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing.
    epiglottis
  8. Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen
    hemoglobin
  9. Indented region of an organ where vessels and nerves enter or leave.
    Hilum
  10. Structure between the pharynx and trachea that contains the vocal cords; voice
    box.
    larynx
  11. Organ of respiration.
    lung
  12. Region between the lungs and the organs and vessels it contains
    mediastium
  13. Throat; passageway between the mouth and esophagus
    pharynx
  14. Nerve that activates the diaphragm.
    phrenic nerve
  15. Serous membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs
    pleura
  16. Process by which oxygen is obtained from the environment and delivered to the
    cells.
    respiration
  17. Substance in the alveoli that prevents their collapse by reducing surface
    tension of the contained fluids
    surfactant
  18. Tube that extends from the larynx to the bronchi; windpipe
    trachea
  19. Movement of air into and out of the lungs.
    ventilation
  20. Transfer of digested nutrients from the digestive tract into thecirculation.
    absorption
  21. Substance produced in the liver that emulsifies fats.
    bile
  22. Milky-appearing fluid absorbed into the lymphatic system from the small intestine. It consists of lymph and droplets of digested fat.
    chyle
  23. Mixture of partially digested food, water, and digestive juices thatforms in the stomach.
    chyme
  24. Act of eliminating undigested waste from the digestive tract.
    defecation
  25. Process of breaking down food into absorbable particles.
    digestion
  26. First portion of the small intestines.
    duodenum
  27. To break up fats into small particles
    emulsify pl. emulsification
  28. Organic catalyst; speeds the rate of a reaction but is not changed inthe reaction.
    enzyme
  29. Muscular tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach.
    esophagus
  30. Muscular sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile.
    gallbladder
  31. Splitting of large molecules by the addition of water, as in digestion
    hydrolosis
  32. Organ of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus,consisting of the small and large intestine.
    intestine
  33. Lymphatic capillary that drains digested fast from the villi of thesmall intestine
    lacteal
  34. Large gland inferior to the diaphragm in the superior right abdomen; hasmany functions, including bile secretion, detoxification, storage, andinterconversion of nutrients.
    liver
  35. Act of chewing.
    mastification
  36. Large, elongated gland behind the stomach; produces digestive enzymesand hormones (e.g. insulin).
    pancreas
  37. Wavelike movements in the wall of an organ or duct that propel itscontents forward.
    perstalisis
  38. Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and forms outer layer ofabdominal organs; forms supporting ligaments for some organs
    peritoneum
  39. Secretion of the salivary glands; moistens food and contains an enzymethat digests starch.
    saliva
  40. Organ of the digestive tract that stores food, mixes it with digestivejuices, and moves it into the small intestine.
    stomach
  41. Small fingerlike projections from the surface of a membrane; projectionsin the lining of the small intestine through which digested food is absorbed;sing., villus
    villi
  42. Metabolic building of simple compounds into more complex substancesneeded by the body.
    anabolism
  43. Metabolic breakdown of substances into simpler substances; includes thedigestion of food and the oxidation of nutrient molecules for energy.
    catabolism
  44. Simple sugar; main energy source for the cells; dextrose.
    glucose
  45. Region of the brain that controls the pituitary and maintains homeostasis.
    hypothalamus
  46. Measure of the energy content of food; technically, the amount of heatneeded to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree centigrade.
    kilocalorie
  47. A condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients.
    malnutrition
  48. Rate at which energy is  released from nutrients in the cells
    metabolic rate
  49. Inorganic substance; in the diet, an element needed in small amounts forhealth.
    mineral
  50. Inorganic substance; in the diet, an element needed in small amounts forhealth.
    oxidation
  51. organic compound needed in small amounts for health.
    vitamin
  52. Substance formed in the  blood bythe action of the renal enzyme renin; it increases blood pressure by causingvascular constriction and stimulating the release of aldosterone from theadrenal cortex.
    angiotensin
  53. Hormone released from the posterior pituitary gland that increases water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus decreasing the urinary output.
    antidiuretic hormone – (ADH)
  54. Substance that prevents sharp changes in the pH of a solution.
    buffer
  55. Compound that separates into ions in solution; substance that conductsan electrical current in solution.
    electrolyte
  56. Removal and elimination of metabolic waste products from the blood.
    excretion
  57. Outside the cell.
    extracellular
  58. fluid and dissolved material that leave the blood and enter the kidney nephron through the glomerular (Bowman) capsule.
    glomerular filtrate
  59. Cluster of capillaries in the nephron’s glomerular (Bowman) capsule.
    glomerulus
  60. Between; pertaining to an organ’s spaces or structures between active tissues.
    interstitial
  61. Within a cell.
    intracellular
  62. Organ of excretion
    kidney
  63. Act of urination; voiding of the urinary bladder
    micturition
  64. Microscopic function unit of the kidney.
    nephron
  65. Symbol indicating hydrogen ion (H+) concentration; scale that measuresthe relative acidity and alkalinity (basicity) of a solution.
    pH
  66. Enzyme released from the kidney’s juxtaglomerular apparatus thatindirectly increases blood pressure by activating  angiotensin.
    renin
  67. Nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine; end product of proteinmetabolism.
    urea
  68. Tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
    ureter
  69. Tube that carries urines from the urinary bladder to the outside of thebody.
    urethra
  70. Hollow organ that stores urine until it is eliminated.
    urinary bladder
  71. Liquid waste excreted by the kidneys.
    urine

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