Chemistry Chapter 15 test

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Henri93
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Chemistry Chapter 15 test
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2014-04-30 19:08:12
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Chemistry Chapter 15 test
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Chemistry Chapter 15 test
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  1. water that contains dissolved substances
    aqueous solution
  2. the chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
    Brownian motion
  3. a mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solute solution
    colloid
  4. a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not
    electrolyte
  5. the colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another
    emulsion
  6. a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
    hydrate
  7. a compound that does not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state
    nonelectrolyte
  8. dissolved particles in a solution
    solute
  9. a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in solution, solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions.
    solvation
  10. the dissolving medium in a solution
    solvent
  11. a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
    strong electrolyte
  12. any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension; soaps and detergents are surfactants
    surfactant
  13. a mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing
    suspension
  14. an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin
    surface tension
  15. scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
    Tyndall effect
  16. a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
    weak electrolyte
  17. As a result, the oxygen atom acquires a partial negative charge
    (δ−)
  18. water is a simple ____ molecule
    triatomic
  19. The less electronegative hydrogen atoms acquire partial positive charges
    (δ+)
  20. O——H bonds are highly
    polar
  21. The bond angle of the water molecule is approximately 105°, which gives the molecule a -___ shape
    bent
  22. Many unique and important properties of water—including its high surface tension and low vapor pressure—result from _________ _____.
    hydrogen bonding
  23. The surface tension of water tends to hold a drop of liquid in a _____ shape
    spherical
  24. The structure of ice is a regular open framework of water molecules arranged like a _____
    honeycomb
  25. A solvent dissolves the solute. The ____ becomes dispersed in the solvent
    solute
  26. Solute particles can be atoms, ions, or molecules, and their average diameters are usually less than 1 __ (10−9 m)
    nm
  27. Substances that dissolve most readily in water include ___________________________
    ionic compounds and polar covalent molecules
  28. Nonpolar covalent molecules, such as methane, and compounds found in oil, grease, and gasoline, do not ____ in water
    dissolve
  29. As individual solute ions break away from the crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become _____ by solvent molecules and the ionic crystal dissolves
    surrounded
  30. In some ionic compounds, the attractions among the ions in the crystals are stronger than the attractions exerted by water. These compounds cannot be solvated to any significant extent and are therefore nearly insoluble. Barium sulfate (BaSO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are examples of nearly insoluble ionic compounds.
  31. As a rule, polar solvents such as water dissolve ________________; nonpolar solvents such as gasoline dissolve nonpolar compounds. This relationship can be summed up in the expression “like dissolves like.”
    ionic compounds and polar compounds
  32. All ionic compounds are ________ because they dissociate into ions
    electrolytes
  33. All soluble salts, inorganic acids, and inorganic bases are ________.
    strong electrolytes
  34. In writing the formula of a hydrate, use a dot to connect the formula of the compound and the number of water molecules per formula unit
  35. If a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than the pressure of water vapor in the air, the hydrate will lose its water of hydration or effloresce
  36. These hydrates and other compounds that remove moisture from air are called hygroscopic
  37. A desiccant is a substance used to absorb moisture from the air and create a dry atmosphere
  38. These compounds are deliquescent, which means that they remove sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions.

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