the chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
a mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solute solution
a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not
the colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another
a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
a compound that does not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state
dissolved particles in a solution
a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in solution, solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions.
the dissolving medium in a solution
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension; soaps and detergents are surfactants
a mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing
an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin
scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
As a result, the oxygen atom acquires a partial negative charge
water is a simple ____ molecule
The less electronegative hydrogen atoms acquire partial positive charges
O——H bonds are highly
The bond angle of the water molecule is approximately 105°, which gives the molecule a -___ shape
Many unique and important properties of water—including its high surface tension and low vapor pressure—result from _________ _____.
The surface tension of water tends to hold a drop of liquid in a _____ shape
The structure of ice is a regular open framework of water molecules arranged like a _____
A solvent dissolves the solute. The ____ becomes dispersed in the solvent
Solute particles can be atoms, ions, or molecules, and their average diameters are usually less than 1 __ (10−9 m)
Substances that dissolve most readily in water include ___________________________
ionic compounds and polar covalent molecules
Nonpolar covalent molecules, such as methane, and compounds found in oil, grease, and gasoline, do not ____ in water
As individual solute ions break away from the crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become _____ by solvent molecules and the ionic crystal dissolves
In some ionic compounds, the attractions among the ions in the crystals are stronger than the attractions exerted by water. These compounds cannot be solvated to any significant extent and are therefore nearly insoluble. Barium sulfate (BaSO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are examples of nearly insoluble ionic compounds.
As a rule, polar solvents such as water dissolve ________________; nonpolar solvents such as gasoline dissolve nonpolar compounds. This relationship can be summed up in the expression “like dissolves like.”
ionic compounds and polar compounds
All ionic compounds are ________ because they dissociate into ions
All soluble salts, inorganic acids, and inorganic bases are ________.
In writing the formula of a hydrate, use a dot to connect the formula of the compound and the number of water molecules per formula unit
If a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than the pressure of water vapor in the air, the hydrate will lose its water of hydration or effloresce
These hydrates and other compounds that remove moisture from air are called hygroscopic
A desiccant is a substance used to absorb moisture from the air and create a dry atmosphere
These compounds are deliquescent, which means that they remove sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions.