CH 7 Electrolytes and Fluids

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  1. Fluid
    • Characterized by ability to move freely, adapting to the shape of container
    • Composition of cells and tissues critical to body's ability to function
    • Age, gender affects fluid levels
  2. Body fluid
    • Liquid portion of cells and tissues
    • 50-70% of body weight is fluid
    • Cells lose fluid, shrink and die
    • Too much fluid, swell and burst
    • Composed of H2O and salts
    • Contain 4 main minerals
  3. Intracellular fluid
    fluid within cell walls, 2/3 of body fluid
  4. Extracellular fluid
    • flows outside our cells
    • Tissue fluid: flows between the cells that make up an organ or tissue
    • Intravascular fluid: found within blood and lymphatic vessels - plasma
    • Lean tissue - mostly fluid 70%
    • Fat tissue - little fluid 10-20%
  5. Body fluid contains electrolytes
    • 4 major minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus)
    • Electrolytes - mineral salts, dissolve in water, 2 components separate from charged particles called ions
  6. Ions
    • Ions arry electrical current - spark that stimulates nerves to contract muscles
    • Positive: sodium, potassium
    • Negative: chloride, phosphorus
    • Intracellular: potassium, phosphorus
    • Extracellular: sodium, chloride
  7. Dissolve and transport substances
    Solvent - capable of dissolving wide variety of substances, transports solutes to cells
  8. Account for blood volume
    Amount of fluid in blood, appropriate levels are essential
  9. Maintain body temperature
    • Water has high capacity for heat
    • Primary coolant
  10. Protect and lubricate our tissues
    Cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, synovial fluid, tears, saliva, pleural fluid
  11. Help regulate fluid balance
    • Cell membranes are permeable
    • Cannot voluntary regulate flow of fluid between intracellular and extracellular environments
    • Not freely permeable to electrolytes, stay where they are, need special transport proteins
    • Osmosis - solutes attract water to areas where they are concentrated
  12. Enable nerves to respond stimuli
    • Stimuli prompt changes in membrane that allow and influx of sodium into the nerve cell
    • Depolarization -¬†becomes less negatively charged
    • Repolarization - Cell becomes normal again after releasing potassium to outside
    • Sodium and potassium crucial in nerve impulses
  13. Muscle contraction occurs in response to stimulation of nerve cells
    • Signal our muscles to contract
    • Potassium and sodium (aid the elctrical signal)
    • Extracellular fluid is depleted which causes intracellular fluid depletion
  14. Thirst mechanism
    • Hypothalamus cells - thirst mechanism
    • Happens when: increased concentration of salt, reduction in blood volume and blood pressure, dryness in the tissues of the mouth and throat
    • Hypothalamus detects change - stimulates hormone to signal kidney to reduce urine flow, return fluid to the blood stream, water drawn from salivary gland
  15. Significant loss of fluid
    • Illness (fever, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, runny nose)
    • Traumatic injury (bleeding, donation, surgery)
    • Exercise
    • Environment
    • Pregnancy
    • Breastfeeding
    • Diuretics
  16. Nutrients involved in hydration and neuromuscular function
    • Water
    • Minerals: sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium
  17. Water
    • How much? Consider: age, body size, health status, physical activity leve, environment
    • Too much? Very rare: reabsorption, retention by the kidneys
    • Hyponotremia - low blood sodium concentration (marathon concentration)
    • Dehydration - not enough water
  18. Sodium
    • Major positively charged electrolyte in extracellular fluid
    • Exchanged with potassium across cell membranes
    • Maintain proper the fluid balance, blood pressure, acid-base balance
    • Transmission of nerve signals
    • Muscle contractions
    • How much? - 1500 mg daily; 2400 upper intake
    • Sneaky sodium - processed foods, restaurant
    • Too much? - high blood pressure, excrtion of calcium, hyperatremia (CHF/kidney disease, cannot excrete sodium)
    • Not enough - Sweat heavily, consume no sodium
  19. Potassium
    • Major positively charged electrolyte in intracellular fluid
    • Maintain proper fluid balance
    • Potassium+Sodium - transmission of neve impulses, contract muscles
    • Diet high in potassium maintains low blood pressure
    • How much? - 4700 mg daily
    • Avoid - processed food
    • Ingest - fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, dairy
    • Increase potassium, decrease sodium
    • High potassium foods - potato, yogurt, tomato juice, orange juice, banana
  20. Hypo/Hyperkalemia
    • Low/High potassium levels
    • Not enough potassium - dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea cause (confusion, loss of appetite, uscle weakness / fatal heart rhythm)
  21. Chloride
    • Negatively charged ion that is obtained in diet from sodium chloride, table salt
    • Chloride + Sodium - extracellular fluid, stomach acid, white blood cells: immunity, transmission of nerve impulses
    • How much? - 2300 mg daily, primarily in salt, some fruits and vegetables
    • Too much? - Hypertension
  22. Phosphorus
    • Major intracellular negatively charged electrolyte
    • In the body, most common form of phosphate
    • Essential component of all cells in plants and animals
    • Phosphorus + Potassium - proper fluid balance, bone ¬†formation (85% stored in bones), primary component of ATP
    • ATP - energy for the body, activate and deactivate enzymes, DNA/RNA, phospholipids, lipoprotein
    • How much? - 700 mg daily, milk-meats-eggs, animal source absorbed more readily, plant source-phytic acid, absorb 50% in plant foods
    • Too little? - rare, population?(premature infant, elderly, poor diet, alcohol abuse)
    • Too much? - muscle spasms, convulsions
Card Set:
CH 7 Electrolytes and Fluids
2014-05-01 02:28:01
electrolytes fluids
Nutrients Involved in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
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