Workman 16-17 review.txt

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Workman 16-17 review.txt
2014-04-30 22:36:58
drugs high lipids affecting blood clotting

Workman chapters 16-17
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  1. Normal Values: total cholesterol
    • < 200 mg/dL
    • high risk: > 239
  2. Normal Values: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
    • “bad”
    • 60-180 mg/dL
    • high risk: < 35
  3. Normal Values: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
  4. Normal Values: High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
    • “good”
    • male: > 45 mg/dL
    • female: > 55 mg/dL
  5. Normal Values: Triglycerides
    • male: 40-160 mg/dL
    • female: 35-135 mg/dL
    • High risk: 400-1000
  6. What are adverse effects of atorvastatin (Lipitor)?
    • May develop rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown).
    • S&S: general muscle soreness, muscle pain and weakness, vomiting, stomach pain, and brown urine (contains pieces of broken-down muscle)
  7. Before giving statins:
    Baseline kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen [BUN} and creatinine); kidney failure a side effect of rhabdomyolysis.
  8. Should pregnant or breastfeeding women take statin drubs?
  9. cholestyramine (Questran) is what kind of drug?
    Bile acid sequestrant
  10. How should bile acid sequestrants be taken with antacids?
    2 hours before or 2 hours after antacids.
  11. What do Fibrates do?
    • Decrease blood triglyceride levels and cause mild increase in HDL.
    • Decrease liver production of triglycerides and increase use of triglycerides by fat tissues for metabolism.
  12. Name a common fibrate:
    gemfibrozil (Lopid)
  13. What should patients avoid consuming while taking fibrates?
    grapefruit juice
  14. What are the intended responses of niacin (Niaspan)?
    • Decrease: total cholesterol level
    • Decrease: total triglyceride level
    • Decrease: LDL
    • Increase: HDL
  15. What are adverse effects of niacin?
    • Gout.
    • Hyperglycemia
    • stomach ulcer flare-up (reduce GI effects: take with meals)
  16. The normal range for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is:
    Mean normal range in seconds established by laboratory.
  17. The therapeutic range for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is:
    1.5-2.5 times mean normal range in seconds established by laboratory.
  18. The normal range for international normalized ratio (INR) is:
  19. The therapeutic range for international normalized ratio (INR) is:
  20. How to give heparin:
    • Do not aspirate before injection.
    • Do not expel air bubble before injection.
    • Deep subcut with client lying down.
  21. Name a thrombin inhibitor:
  22. What is the antidote for heparin
    IV protamine sulfate
  23. Name a clotting factor synthesis inhibitor:
    warfarin (Coumadin)
  24. What is the antidote for warfarin?
    IM or IV vitamin K.
  25. Should warfarin be given during pregnancy?
    NO, warfarin is pregnancy category X and causes birth defects and bleeding in unborn child.
  26. What drugs INCREASE the action of warfarin?
    • aspirin
    • acetaminophen
    • statin drugs
    • oral contraceptives
    • some antibiotics
  27. What drugs DECREASE the action of warfarin?
    • cholestyramine (Questran)
    • sucralfate (Carafate)
    • barbiturate drugs
  28. Drugs ending in –plase are what class?
    Common thrombolytic drugs