CH 8 Nutrients Involed in Antioxidant Function

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  1. Antioxidants
    • compounds that protect our cells from the damage caused by oxidation
    • [against-oxidation]
  2. Oxidation
    • A chemical reaction in which molecules of a substance are broken down into their component atoms
    • During oxidation, the atoms involved lose electrons, fueled by oxygen
  3. Metabolism
    • Process by which our body breaks down and builds up molecules
    • Atoms lose electrons, fueled by oxygen=oxidation
    • Atoms gain electrons = reduction
    • Loss and gain of electrons results in an even exchange - exchange reactions
  4. Free Radicals
    • Formed when immune system produces inflammation to fight allergens/infections
    • Formed after exposure to air pollution, UV rays, radiation, tobacco smoke, industrial chemicals, asbestos
    • Free radicals are a concrn due to their destabilizing power
    • Cell membrane i most at risk (integrity is lost, unable to regulate / damage to the cell and all systems affected by the cell)
    • LDL, cell protein, and DNA are at risk
  5. Antioxidant Vitamins
    work independently, donate electrons or hydrogen atoms to free radicals to stabilize
  6. Antioxidant mineral
    • Act as cofactors
    • Activate enzymes that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that are excreted by the body
    • Break down fatty acids that are oxidized, destroys free radical associated
    • Make more vitamin antioxidants available to fight other free radicals
  7. Vitamin E
    • Fat-soluble
    • Dietary fats carry from our intestines to lymphatic system to cells
    • Donates an electron to free radical to stabilize and prevent from destabilizing other molecules
    • Once oxidized, excreted or recycled with help from other antioxidants
    • Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • Protects fatty components of cell and cell membrane from oxidation
    • Protects LDLs, lowers risk for heart disease
    • Protects membrane of red blood cell
    • Protects cells of lungs, constantly exposed o oxygen
    • Added to oil based food and skincare - prevents from becoming rancid
    • Critical to fetal and childhood development / maintenance of nerves and muscles
    • Protects immune system
    • Improve absorption of Vitamin A
  8. Vitamin E Intake
    • How much? - Measurements expressed as milligrams of alpha-tocopherol equivilents per day / RDA = 15 mg alpha-tocopherol per day / Tolerable Upper Intake Level = 1000 mg
    • Where? - vegetable, safflower, sunflower, canola, soybean oil / nuts, seeds, soybeans (spinach, broccoli, avocado)
    • Destroyed by oxygen, metals, UV, heat
    • Too much? - vascular disease, diabetes, heart failure, stroke, nausea, intestinal distress, diarrhea\
    • Anticoagulants - can augment action, causing uncontrollable bleeding
    • Not enough? - rupture of red blood cell - anemia, loss of muscle coordination and reflex (impaired vision, speech, movement, immune function)
  9. Vitamin C
    • Water-soluble
    • Must consume daily, excess is excreted daily
    • Humans cannot make
    • Prevents scurvy
    • Assists in the synthesis of a collagen
    • Enhances immune function
    • Synthesis of DNA, bile, neurotransmitters (serotonin)
    • Many hormones rely to sustain appropriate level (thyroxine)
  10. Vitamin C intake
    • How much? - easily obtained, daily-men 90mg-women 75mg, smokers +35 mg, tolerable upper intake - 2000mg per day
    • Sources: oranges, lemons, limes, potatoes, strawberries, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, broccoli, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, green and red pepper
    • Too much? - Excrete excess, not toxic supplements only lead to toxicity (kidney disease = kidney stones)
    • Not enough? - scurvy, anemia
  11. Beto-carotene
    • Provitamin: inactive form of vitamin that the body cannot use until converted to active form
    • Active form = Vitamin A
    • Retinol
    • Expressed in units in food = Retinol Activity Equivalants
    • Phytochemicals
    • 600 found in nature
    • Enhance the immune system
    • Protects eyes and skin from damage
  12. Beto-carotene intake
    • How much? - no essential role in body, no deficiency, not toxic, skin can turn yellow or ¬†orange
    • Beyond carrots - most vegetables that are red, orange, yellow, deep green
    • Sources - tomatoes, sweet potato, leafy greens, apricots, cantaloupe, pumpkin, natural coloring agent
  13. Vitamin A
    • Night blindness
    • Fat-soluble vitamin stored in liver, adipose tissue, kideys, lungs
    • 3 active forms in our body (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid)
    • Functions - antioxidant, essential to vision, contributs to cell differentiation, reproduction, bone health
  14. Vitamin A intake
    • How much? - toxicity can occur because fat-soluble
    • Source - beef, liver, chicken, eggs, dairy, beto-carotene
    • Too much? - results from supplements, birth defects, fatigue, loss of appetite, blurred vision, hair loss, skin disorders, bone and joint pain, abdominal pain, damage to liver, damage to nervous system
    • Not enough? - night blindness, color blindness, vision impairment
  15. Selenium
    • Trace mineral, found in soil, in plants that grow in soil
    • Need very small amount, but major role
    • Keshan disease, heart disorder
    • Contained amino acids
    • Spare vitamin E
    • Antioxidant
    • Produces thyroxine
    • Maintenance of body temperature and metabolism
    • Immunity
    • Reduces risk for cancer
  16. Selenium intake
    • Sources: organ meat, pork, seafood, any plant that is grown in selenium rich soil
    • Too much? - not toxic, supplement=toxic, brittle hair and nails - skin rashes - vomiting, nausea, weakness, liver disease
    • Not enough? - deforming arthritis, impaired immune responses, increased risk for viral infection, infertility, depression, hostility, impaired cognitive function, muscle pain and wasting
  17. Copper, Iron, and Zinc
    • Antioxidant
    • Healthy blood
    • Carbohydrate metabolism
Card Set:
CH 8 Nutrients Involed in Antioxidant Function
2014-05-01 03:55:25
Antioxidant Function
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